28/08/2017

Tanokami shanichi day of the shrine

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. Ta no Kami 田の神 - Table of Contents .
. Yama no Kami 山の神 - Table of Contents - .
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Ta no Kami, Tanokami 田の神 God of the Fields
Shanichi Sama, Shajitsu Sama 社日様 God of the Shrine Day
Sakugami Sama 作神様 God of the Harvest


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shanichi 社日
The tsuchinoe day nearest to the vernal and autumnal equinoxes; the "irregular holiday" (holidays celebrated on days when the sun is not situated at one of the 24 equal divisions of its annual orbit) celebrated on those two days.
Individually the two are called shunsha (the "vernal shanichi") and shūsha (the "autumnal shanichi"), but if one simply says shanichi then it usually refers to shunsha. On these days, people take a break from farming, and a custom of meeting in shanichikō (shanichi community associations) and chijinkō (earth kami community associations) also exists.
Also, the spring shanichi is considered to be the standard day for the soaking and softening of seeds.
In China, shanichi was the festival day for celebrating the sha (Ch: she), which refers to the "land kami," the "tribal kami," or the celebrations devoted to them. The date of shanichi celebrations in China varied by region and time period, but their functions generally have not: the spring shanichi was to pray for agricultural production and the autumn shanichi was to express gratitude for the harvest and to divine the coming harvest year.
Japan's shanichi celebrations also came from these traditions, but as it spread from region to region, the content of the events took on great variation.
For example, people living in Tokushima Prefecture have a custom in which they call on Ojishisama and celebrate that kami in parish festivals in which the tōya (secular households overseeing the ritual in their area) pounds mochi.
On shanichi, the people of Nagano Prefecture honor the ta no kami, or "kami of the fields," in their celebrations. They believe that in the spring, the ta no kami descends from the mountains to watch over the rice cultivation and returns again to the mountains in the fall, and worship him by pounding mochi in both spring and autumn.
In Oita Prefecture's Hida basin, people call this holiday "sajitsu," or "saji" and believe that on the saji in February, the kami Sakugamisama descends from heaven and in the autumn saji he ascends to heaven.
In part of Fukuoka Prefecture's Kaho District, people call it oshioi, and have a custom of purifying the house within and without using ocean sand brought home from the beach.
- reference source : Kokugakuin - Yumiyama Tatsuya 2007 -


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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

....................................................................... Miyagi 宮城県 .....
栗原市 Kurihara

毘沙門様 Bishamon Sama
Bishamon Sama is a greedy deity. If one borrows money it has to be given back in double.
He is also seen as Sakugami.
On the 13th day of the first month, farmers place 20 soy beans into the hearth. If they all become black, it will be a good harvest this year.
If only half will get black, only half of the good harvest.
On the 15th day of the 6th month, cucumbers are offered in the hope they will induce 豊作 a good harvest.

. Bishamon-Ten 毘沙門天 Vaishravana .


....................................................................... Miyazaki 宮崎県 .....
西臼杵郡 Nishi-Usuki district 鞍岡町 Kuraoka

Daikoku Sama 大黒様 is seen as 作神様 Sakugami Sama.

. Daikoku Ten 大黒天 Daikoku Sama .


....................................................................... Nagasaki 長崎県 .....

Sakugami Sama is called セン神様 / センガミサマ Sengami Sama.


....................................................................... Niigata 新潟県 .....
南魚沼郡 Minami-Uonuma district 六日町 Muikamachi

社日様 Shajitsu Sama,田の神様 Tanokami Sama,作神様 Sakugami Sama
On the Day of the Shrine in Spring (shunsha 春社) (usually in the third month) in the early morning before the birds begin to sing, Tanokami is coming down. Since he likes fish, people make offerings of fish salad, fish soup and rice with soy beans. Farmers get up early and put 鍬 / 鋤 the hoes and plows outside the barn for blessings. This is an equivalent for the ritual tauchi 田打ち the first "hitting of the fields".
From the Shrine Day in spring until the Shrine Day in autumn (usually in the ninth month) the deity seen as 作柄 the supervisor of the harvest.
If the deity comes late in spring and leaves soon in autumn, it will be a good harvest, because this deity likes to eat a lot, and if he stays too long, the harvest will suffer.

シャジツサマ Shajitsu Sama
Rituals for this deity are held on the nearest 戊の日 Day of the Wild Boar close to the spring and autumn equinox.



- Related Kigo for Spring -
. shanichi, shajitsu 社日 "day of the shrine" .
..... "day of the shrine" shanichi 社日)、shanichi sama 社日様(しゃにちさま)
..... visiting the shrine day, shanichi moode 社日詣(
..... rain on the old man of the shrine, shaoo no ame 社翁の雨
..... swallows of the shrine, sha en 社燕
This day varies according to the Asian Lunar Calendar.

The god of the earth had a special festival twice a year around the spring and autumn equinox to welcome him and send him off. The day was defined to be the "light or elder day of the earth" tsuchi no e 戊, according to the Asian lunar calendar and the knowledge of the five elements.
This day is also called "Shrine Day" shanichi 社日. On this shrine day, farmers would assemble at the local shrine and dance for the gods, praying for a good harvest in spring (shunsha 春社)and thanking for a good harvest in autumn(shuusha 秋社 Shusha).
In autumn, the god of the earth was then sent off to the mountain, to live there until next spring as the "god of the mountain, yama no kami 山の神.

.......................................................................
東蒲原郡 Higashi-Kanbara district 鹿瀬町 Kanosemachi



On the evening of the 15th day of the second month in Spring 16 rice balls are made as an offering, 二月の十六団子 nigatsu no juuroku dango.
On the next morning, they are eaten by the family. Before eating them, the empty 臼 mortar is hit with the mallet to make a sound, in order to make the Sakugami come down from heaven.
In Autumn on the 15th day of the 10th month another set of 16 rice balls is prepared, this time the 十月の十六団子 juugatsu no juuroku dango.
This time the mortar is not hit with the mallet, but the mallet is simply laid over the mortar. This is put on a high place in the kitchen, to show the Sakugami the way back to heaven.

. dango 団子 and ritual offerings .

.......................................................................
佐渡郡 Sado district

シャニチサマ Shanichi Sama
Rituals for this deity are held on the nearest 戊の日 Day of the Wild Boar close to the spring and autumn equinox.
If the deity comes late in spring and leaves soon in autumn, it will be a good harvest, because this deity likes to eat a lot, and if he stays too long, the harvest will suffer.


....................................................................... Oita 大分県 .....
速見郡 Hayami district 日出町 Hiji

In the hamlet of 南畑部落 Nanbata Shanichi Sama is venerated as 田の守り神 the protector deity of the fields.


....................................................................... Shiga 佐賀県 .....
東松浦郡 Higashi-Matsuura district 鎮西町 Chinseicho

kitsune 狐 fox
Each farm house venerates 稲荷様 the rice Deity Inari sama as the Sakugami Sama on the day hatsu-uma 初午, the first day of the horse .
The Inari Kami of the 藤田家 Fujita family came from Kyoto

. hatsu-uma 初午 First Day of the Horse .
in February

Inari Jinja 稲荷神社 First Day of the Horse at Fox Shrines 

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- reference source : nichibun yokai database -
社日様 / 作神様

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. Ta no Kami 田の神 - Table of Contents - .

. Yama no Kami 山の神 - Table of Contents - .

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sangaku shinkoo 山岳信仰 religion of the High Mountains is a different matter.

. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .

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