Showing posts with label - - - HHH - - -. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - - - HHH - - -. Show all posts

28/02/2018

Kagutsuchi Homusubi fire

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Shinto Shrines (jinja 神社) - Introduction .
. kami 神 Shinto deities .
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Kagutsuchi カグツチ / 軻遇突智 Kagu-tsuchi - "incarnation of fire"
Homusubi no Mikoto 火産霊命

Hinokagatsuchi 火之迦具土

He is the main deity in residence at the many
. Atago Jinja 愛宕神社 Atago shrines of Japan .

Kagutsuchi is the patron deity of blacksmiths and ceramic workers.


source : rekihaku-bo/historystation / イザナギとイザナミの国造り

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- quote -
Other names:
Kagutsuchi no mikoto, Hinoyagihayao no kami, Hinokagabiko no kami (Kojiki),
Ho musuhi (Nihongi).

The kami of fire or hi no kami. According to Kojiki and an "alternate writing" transmitted by Nihongi, Izanami suffered mortal burns when giving birth to this kami.
Upon Izanami's death, Izanagi was enraged and cut up the deity with his sword, whereupon Takemikazuchi and other deities were produced from the blood on his sword.
Still other deities were produced from Kagutsuchi's body, and their names all included the element yamatsumi, thus indicating their relation to mountains.
In the Engishiki,
a source which contains the myth, Izanami, in her death throes, bears the water god Mizuhame, instructing her to pacify Kagutsuchi if he should become violent. This story also contains references to traditional fire-fighting tools: gourds for carrying water and wet clay and water reeds for smothering fires.
- reference source : Kadoya Atsushi - Kokugakuin -





Kuraokami, Takaokami 高おかみ神, Kuramitsuha
Three Kami produced from the blood that dripped from Izanagi's sword when he killed the kami of fire, Kagutsuchi.
. Kifune Shrine Kume 貴布弥(きふね)神社 .
岡山県久米郡久米町桑上 Kuwakami village, Kume, Okayama


. 金山彦神 Kanayamabiko, 金山姫 Kanayamabime .
According to Kojiki, these kami were produced from the vomit (taguri) emitted by Izanami as she lay dying following the birth of the kami of fire Kagutsuchi.
The History of Tatara - Kanayago-Kami


. Kifune Jinja 貴船神社 Shrine in Kyoto .
Tamayori-hime 玉依姫, a female water Kami, is venerated here to watch over Kagutsuchi, in a balance of fire and water worship in Kyoto.
The tow other deities enshrined here are Takaokami-no-Kami and Kuraokami-no-Kami.

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- quote -
Kagutsuchi (aka Hi-no-Kagutsuchi) is the Shinto god or kami of fire and is also known as Homusubi. The son of Izanami and Izanagi, the fire god is the father of eight warrior gods and eight mountain gods, amongst others. Such a destructive force as fire in a culture where buildings were typically made of wood and paper resulted in Kagutsuchi becoming an important object of Shinto ritual and a frequent receiver of appeasing offerings.
- Genealogy & Offspring
According to the 8th-century CE Kojiki ('Record of Ancient Things') and Nikon Shoki ('Chronicle of Japan' and also known as the Nihongi), Kagutsuchi-no-kami, to give his full name, was born from Izanami, one of the Shinto creator gods, but such was his fierce heat that he killed his mother in the process. His father Izanagi was not best pleased with this result and so lopped off Kagutsuchi’s head with his great sword, the Ame-no-o-habari-no-kami. From the blood which gushed out over the surrounding rocks and dripped from the sword’s blade and hilt another eight gods were born, all of them powerful swordsmen kami. The two most important of these martial gods are Takemikazuchi-no-kami and Futsunushi-no-kami, with the former being also a thunder god and patron of the martial arts who famously subdued Namazu the giant catfish that lives beneath the earth and causes earthquakes by flipping his tail.

Two other gods born from Kagutsuchi’s blood were Kuraokami-no-kami, who is mentioned in the Manyoshu poem anthology (compiled c. 759 CE) as being a dragon and rain god.
Another is Amatsumikaboshi, the kami of Venus, the Evening Star. Her alternative name is Amenokagasewo.

After Kagutsuchi’s decapitation the story continues and from just about every body part of the fire god, from his left foot to his genitals, eight more gods were born. These were mountain gods which represented different types of mountains such as forested ones, those with moors, those far away, those possessing iron, those which provided passes to adjoining valleys and, of course, volcanoes. The stories of Kagutsuchi which include the creation of iron and swords may well be a mythological explanation for the arrival of iron and superior metal goods via immigrants arriving in Japan from mainland Asia at the beginning of the Yayoi Period (c. 300 BCE or earlier to c. 250 CE), many of whom may well have been warriors.

In an alternative version, or rather an added segment, recorded in the 10th-century CE Engishiki, before she dies Izanami hides away and gives birth to three more gods: the water kami Mizuhame-no-mikoto, the clay princess, the gourd, and the water reed. All four are instructed by their dying mother to watch out for Kagutsuchi and, if necessary, act to pacify him if he ever gets out of hand. The traditional fire-fighting equipment of the ancient Japanese was water, carried in a gourd, to pour on the fire while water reeds and clay were often used to smother it. Even today in some parts of Japan, there is a midwinter ritual where reed bundles are placed in the eaves of roofs so that they are handy if a fire should break out.
- Fire in Shinto Rituals
The Japanese have long since had a great fear of fire and the devastation it can cause, not least because Japanese buildings were traditionally made from highly combustible wood and paper walls with wood shale or grass roofs. Fires have destroyed almost every major ancient building and temple in the ancient cities of Japan over the centuries, and during the Edo period (1603-1868 CE), fires were so frequent at the capital Edo (modern Tokyo) that they were known as 'the flowers of Edo'.

It is not surprising then that ceremonies to appease and ward off Kagutsuchi were a common feature of Shinto ritual. In such rituals and prayers, Kagutsuchi is usually referred to as Homusubi, which translates as 'he who starts fires'. The ancient Japanese even dedicated a twice yearly ceremony to Kagutsuchi, the Ho-shizume-no-matsuri, which was sponsored by the imperial court whose sprawling palace complexes were frequently victim to fires. The ceremony was designed to please the god and ensure he would withhold his terrible flames for another six months. The destructive fire of Kagutsuchi is in contrast to the purifying fire of Shinto rituals, known as kiri-bi, which was traditionally made by rubbing together two pieces of hinoki wood, a type of cypress.

Kagutsuchi is sometimes equated with Atago Gongen, another kami of fire and considered an avatar of the Buddhist figure Jizo.
Strictly speaking, though, Atago Gongen is a more positive figure in Japanese mythology and acts as a protector from fire or a preserver of it.
- source : ancient.eu/Kagutsuchi - Mark Cartwright -


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- Reference : カグツチ
- Reference : kagutsuchi


. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .





. Katen, the God of Fire .
Katen 火天 / kajin 火神 the God of Fire


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. Karasu Tengu from the Atago Jinja shrine in Kyoto .


. Sugiyama Sooshoo (Soojoo) 杉山僧正 Sugiyama Sosho (Sojo) .
Sosho is about 3000 years old. He lives in 岩間町愛宕山 Mount Atagoyama in Iwama, Ibaraki.

. Taicho Daishi 泰澄大師 (682 ?683 - 767) .
He practised austerities at 愛宕山 Mount Atago together with En no Gyoja 役小角 En no Ozunu, where they met three Tengu and got special teachings and training.
天狗 白峰大僧正 Tengu Shiramine Daisojo



. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


....................................................................... Chiba 千葉県 .....

. Mount Takagoyama 高宕山 .
高宕山 The Kanji in the middle, 宕, refers to the cave, and this reminded people of the famous 愛宕山 Atagoyama in Kyoto.
Maybe the Tengu from Atagoyama even came here to visit ? ??



....................................................................... Fukui 福井県 .....

. "fire festival of Atago 愛宕の火祭り .



....................................................................... Fukushima 福島県 .....

. 川中子の愛宕神社 Atago Shrine of Kawanakago .



....................................................................... Miyazaki 宮崎県 .....

. Mount Atagoyama in Osaki 愛宕山のオサキ(尾根) .
and the wind kappa 兵主坊 Hyosubo



....................................................................... Saitama 埼玉県 .....
Chichibu

. 和田神社 Wada Jinja .
with a sanctuary for the 愛宕様 Atago Deity, the 山の神 God of the Mountain.


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. Atago Gongen Densetsu 愛宕権現 伝説 More Legends about Atago Gongen .

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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
- #kagutsuchi #homusubi #firegod #atagoyama #atago -
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08/01/2018

Hayama Shrine Fukushima

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Shinto Shrines (jinja 神社) - Introduction .
. kami 神 Shinto deities .
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Hayama Jinja 葉山神社 Hayama Shrine, Soma, Fukushima


source : blogs.yahoo.co.jp/tendomaru...
福島県相馬市馬場野 / Babano, Soma, Fukushima

- - - - - Deitiy in residence - - - - -

. Ooyamatsuminomikoto 大山祇神, 大山積神, 大山津見神 Oyama Tsumi no Mikoto .
Oyamatsumi no Mikoto, Ōyamatsumi - protector of trees and the mountain forest

. Yama no Kami 山の神 God of the Mountain in Fukushima .

The 葉山祠 Hayama shrine is also related to the Soma clan.
Soma Yoshitane 相馬義胤 (1548 - 16365)
He came to live in 馬場野 Babano.

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- quote -
Hayama-gomori - Retreat at Hayama.
A festival held between the fifteenth and the eighteenth day of the eleventh month of the lunar calendar at Kuronuma Shrine, Fukushima City.
According to a local legend, a long time ago, when the nearby hamlet of Kanesawa was being attacked by a giant crab the size of a tatami mat, seven families found shelter at Kuronuma Shrine.
There they received an oracle ( 託宣 takusen / 神託 shintaku) which enabled them to get rid of the crab.
It is said that a giant serpent (orochi) in the Abukuma River was also defeated thanks to a takusen from this shrine. The festival is held to commemorate these two events. Rites of obeisance and making mochi rice cakes are held on the fifteenth.
On the sixteenth, worshippers staying overnight at the small shrines, get naked in order to perform the yoisa rite, a pantomime of rice cultivation.
At dawn on the eighteenth, after having been purified with water, the worshippers climb Mount Hayama to recite ritual incantations (norito). There, an officiant known as the のりわら / ノリワラ noriwara acts as a medium for oracles predicting the weather, harvest and calamities for the coming year.
- source : kokugakuin Mogi Sakae -


黒沼神社 Kuronuma Jinja
福島市松川町金沢 Fukushima, Matsukawa, Kanezawa



- more photos:
- reference source : ameblo.jp/idjericho... -

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相馬郡 Soma district 飯館村 Iitate

Hayama no Kami 葉山の神 Kami of Hayama (羽山の神託)
The Noriwara wears white robes and a white headband and swings a heisoku 幣束 ritual wand.
The villagers built a ritual fire in a place separated with sacred ropes on four green bamboo poles. The Noriwara swings his ritual wand through the flames for purification (hi o shimesu火をしめす). Often the Noriwara himself jumps over the flames.

He answers to all kinds of questions:
Will I have to become a soldier and go to the army?
Will I get ill next year?
When asked, the Noriwara swings his ritual wand heavily up and down and waits till the Kami of Hayama has slipped into his body.
Then he swings the wand up and knees on the floor in reverence (神あがる kami agaru).
Now all present chant a purification prayer:
sange sange rokkon shojo さんげさんげろっこんしょうじょう.

When the Noriwara gets some salt water to drink, he comes back to his sense.
He takes a short rest and then answers to the questions of the next villager.
This ritual lasts the whole night.
At the end the Noriwara swings his wand again through the flames (hi o shimesu 火をしめす).

Then all take the offerings, go to the shrine and have a feast of the food offerings.
The ritual wand can now be placed at the entrance of a horse shed to keep the animals healthy.

The selection of a villager for Noriwara is done with great care.
Once the man had been effective, he will be chosen again and again.
A very clever and learned person is not suited for this sacred post.

If a person does not show respect for the rituals, the Noriwara might call out loud that this person will fall down near the fire.

Once a Noriwara became ill on the day of the rituals and could not attend. One of the villagers assembled at the shrine begun to pray and then became possessed by the Kami.
He jumped up and down, up and down.

Once a man called the oracle of the のりわら Noriwara a lie and laughed loud.
On the afternoon of this day it begun to rain and there was great flooding.


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福島市 Fukushima city 松川町 Matsukawa
Matuskawa is a small town outside of Fukushima City,

hayama no shintaku 羽山の神託 divination at Hayama
Kami from other mountains sometimes come for a visit and the Noriwara has to welcome them and see them off, one after the other.
Sometimes if Hayama no Kami can not show, they can take his turn during the oracle.
Sometimes it is 稲荷 Inari san, sometimes 水神 Suiji, the Kami of Water.

On Mount Hayama in 金沢 Kanezawa hamlet, people stay and pray for divination:
How will the weather be? How will the harvest turn out?
According to the divination, they make their plans for the coming year.

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One more 葉山神社 Hayama Jinja in Koriyama

福島県郡山市大槻町葉山39 / Fukushima, Koriyama, Otsukimachi, Hayama


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- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -


. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .


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[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
- #hayamajinja #hayamashrine #hayamafukushima #noriwara #shintaku #divination -
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20/08/2017

Yama no Kami 10 Regional Hiroshima Hyogo kofun

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Yama no Kami 山の神 Yamanokami - Introduction .
. Ta no Kami 田の神 Tanokami - Introduction .
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Yama no Kami 山の神 God of the Mountain
and Legends from Hiroshima 広島県 and Hyogo 兵庫県
Yamanokami kofun 山の神古墳 Yamanokami tumulus


. Legends about Yamanokami .

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....................................................................... Hiroshima 広島県 .....


Yamanokami Bunkasai 山の神文化祭 Culture Festival
広島県立呉昭和高等学校同窓会 / 広島県 呉市中央6-2-9 // Kure city


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東広島市 Higashi-Hiroshima 八本松町 Hachihonmatsu

. Yamanokami and Tengu 天狗 the Mountain Goblin .
Yamanokami gets an offering of zoosui 雑炊 rice porridge.

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南方村 Minamikata-mura

tooban san トウバンサン Toban san、"The God on Watch-out Duty"
At the beginning of the stone bridge there is one special stone. If a horse or cow tries to pass over the bridge,
it will stumble here and fall down to its death.
The villagers think this must be a sign of Yamanokami. They think Yakanokami is a deity to protect horses and cows and call him Toban San.

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宮島町 Miyajima

ayakashi あやかし something suspicious, the voice of Yamanokami
Shortly after the War, some 20, 30 men went into the forest to cut trees. They heard a voice calling for them and followed the voice. But the voice (of Yamanokami) kept coming from a different direction each time.
So they begun to recite a Buddhist sutra and indeed, the voice kept quiet.

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三次市 Miyoshi // 庄原市 Shobara

On the 20th day of the New Year (mugimeshi shoogatsu 麦飯正月 eating barley) Yamanokami goes to the forest to count the trees.
If a person goes to the forest on this day, he will be counted as a tree and later experience disasters and misfortune.
So this is a holiday for the forest workers.

mugi shoogatsu 麦正月 New Year to honour barley and wheat





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Yamanokami kofun 山の神古墳 Yamanokami tumulus of Japan

. kofun 古墳 burial mound, tumulus .
kofun jidai 古墳時代 burial mound period - 250 to 538

Hiroshima, 広島県 福山市駅家町 Fukuyama Ekiya


In the middle-range of 芦田川 river Ashidagawa. It's form is 前方後円墳. It dates to the middle of the 6th century.
The diameter is about 12 m, and it is 4 m high. The space inside is open to the South and is 横穴式石室, it is about 6,35 m.
The genshitsu 玄室 burial chamber is about 4.1 m long, 2.9 m wide and 3.3 m high.
The sendoo 羨道 passage is 2.25 m long, 1.26 m wide and 1.25 m high.
The excarvated pieces are
金銅製丸玉2個分,鉄斧1,金銅製杏葉ならびに鉄地金張りの鏡材片2個分,方形飾金具,鉄針,須恵器・土師器片がある。
- reference source : Hiroshima bunkazai data -

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Fukuoka 福岡県
- quote -
Recent advancement in the study of the Tsuyazaki mounded tomb group and other sites has enhanced our understanding on the tombs of the chieftains in the Munakata Region. And archeological investigations of dwelling sites have resulted in accumulated evidence that tells of the life and activities of immigrants from the Korean Peninsula. Comparison of these two makes it possible to depict the rise of chieftains in the Munakata Region based on international exchange. Okinoshima Island is situated at a
pivotal location of maritime transportation and it should be possible to discuss the role played by Munakata chieftains in the Okinoshima rituals by linking the rise of chieftains with the international exchange with the Korean Peninsula. It should be noted, however, that the formation of the Tsuyazaki mounded tomb group and the increase in archeological evidence of immigrant activities took place in the second half of the Middle Kofun Period, while the maturation of Okinoshima rituals occurred at the end of the Early Kofun
Period. There is an apparent time gap. A major task for the future is to look at the intervention of chieftains in the Okinoshima rituals and the life and activities of immigrants in the period from the end of the Early Kofun Period to the first half of the Middle Kofun Period from a broad perspective of the post-Yayoi periods.

The largest tumulus in North Chikuzen during Period 8 corresponding to the end of Middle Kofun Period is considered to be Yamanokami mounded tomb in Iizuka City in Agglomeration Midstream of the Onga. River that has an estimated total length of about 85 meters, even though no exact measurement is.
- reference source : okinoshima-heritage.jp... - pdf file -


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Gifu 岐阜県



中津川市山口 Nakatsugawa city, Yamaguchi
山の神古墳(2号墳)は、直径約15m高さ約3mの規模で、墳丘の一部に葺石が見られます。
古墳の年代について、指定時に「7世紀初頭から中期」と報告されましたが、『山口村誌』では「5世紀終末までは遡らない様」としており、位置付けが定まっていません。昭和32年に行われた発掘調査で須恵器、土師器、刀子が出土しました。
かつてこの古墳の北側にもう1基古墳が存在していたと云われていますが、現在では消滅してしまっており、その姿は確認できません。
- reference source : city.nakatsugawa.gifu.jp... -


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Kagawa 香川県
- quote -
Yama-no-kami Kofungun 山ノ神古墳群 Yamanokami Kofungun
near Sakaide (Kagawa pref.) Nearest Village: Kamo-chō 加茂町

Tumulus no.2 which lies in a paddy field on the way to Ayaori-zuka Kofun and Saginokuchi Kofun has carving of leaves and thatched roof on the left side of chamber. Its passage is broken and the carvings of the inner chamber are easy to be recognised but they are so faint to be photographed.
- source : megalithic.co.uk...


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Nara 奈良県 三輪山の神 Miwa Yamanokami
- quote -
Rituals of the Kofun Period: Rituals for the Gods at Mt. Miwayama (exhibition till May 2018)
Mt. Miwayama is an eminent sacred mountain in Japan’s ancient history. From the Yamanokami Site at the foot of the mountain, a number of relics used for rituals, including small mirrors, steatite beads and daggers, as well as earthenware models of tools for brewing alcohol were excavated. Rituals associated with the kingdom of the time were carried out in this region.
- - - - - Including:
Miniature Mirror, From Yamanokami Site, Baba, Miwa, Sakurai-shi, Nara, Kofun period, 5th century
Usudama Beads, From Yamanokami Site, Baba, Miwa, Sakurai-shi, Nara, Kofun period, 5th–6th century
Winnow shaped Clay Objects, From Yamanokami Site, Baba, Miwa, Sakurai-shi, Nara, Kofun period, 5th–6th century
Mallet shaped Clay Objects, From Yamanokami Site, Baba, Miwa, Sakurai-shi, Nara, Kofun period, 5th–6th century
Mallet shaped Clay Objects, From Yamanokami Site, Baba, Miwa, Sakurai-shi, Nara, Kofun period, 5th–6th century
Cutting board shaped Clay Objects, From Yamanokami Site, Baba, Miwa, Sakurai-shi, Nara, Kofun period, 5th–6th century
- source : Tokyo National Museum -


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Shizuoka 静岡県,
4 Chome-4-21 Uchinodai, Hamakita Ward, Hamamatsu



Early to Mid 6th century
The Yamanokami Kofun is also a circular type. It is 15.8m in diameter and 1.8m in height. There is a moat on its north side, and a terrace on its south side. The kofun is presumed to be built in the early to mid 6th century.
Artifacts found from this tomb include sue ware (gray stoneware).
The entrance of the horizontal stone chamber was blocked by stones.
- reference source : hamamatsu-books.jp... -

- - - - -

135 Higashi-Kashiwabara Shinden, Fuji, Shizuoka
静岡県富士市東柏原新田
- reference source : city.fuji.shizuoka.jp... pdf -

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Tokushima 徳島県
 山ノ神古墳群 Yamanokami Kofun gun 
徳島県名西郡石井町石井 Ishii, Myozai District, Tokushima

山ノ神古墳(やまのかみこふん、山の神古墳/山ノ神1号墳/利包古墳<としかねこふん>[1]/利包山古墳[2])は、徳島県名西郡石井町石井にある古墳。形状は前方後円墳。気延山古墳群(うち山ノ神古墳群)を構成する古墳の1つ。史跡指定はされていない。
徳島県北部、吉野川南岸の石井町・徳島市境の気延山(きのべやま)西麓に築造された古墳である[3]。気延山では200基以上の古墳(うち山ノ神古墳群は3基[2])が分布し、本古墳はその中で最大規模になる[3]。本古墳は1978年(昭和53年)に発見されたのち[4]、1983年(昭和58年)に測量調査が[2]、2014年度(平成26年度)以降に発掘調査が実施されている[3][4]。
墳形は
前方後円形で、墳丘に段築は認められていない[4]。墳丘長は約56メートルを測るが、これは徳島県では第3位の規模になる[4][注 1]。円筒埴輪は認められていないが、形象埴輪片や鉄鎌・鉄斧が検出されている[4]。主体部の埋葬施設は粘土槨2基で、墳頂部で並んだ状態で設けられている[5]。以上より、築造時期は古墳時代前期の4世紀後半頃と推定され[4]、山ノ神古墳群含む気延山古墳群では最後の前方後円墳に位置づけられる[3]。
なお、
1号墳のそばには円墳(直径14メートル)が位置し、築造時期は4世紀末頃と推定される[4]。この円墳の周辺部では徳島県内2例目(全国では約70例)となる筒形銅器が出土しており、畿内王権との関わりの点で注目される[4]。
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


source and more photos : sueyasumas.exblog.jp...


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庚申塚古墳・山の神古墳(富士市東柏原)

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Yamanokami Kofun no Kenkyu (The Study of Yamanokami Tumulus)
TSUJITA, Jun'ichiro (2016)

Yamanokami Site in Akishima City 昭島市
? 浄土古墳



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....................................................................... Hyogo 兵庫県 .....




Yamanokami Matsuri festival at 香美町香住区沖浦 / Kasumiku Okinoura, Kami, Mikata District
The children paint their faces black with charcoal and bring offerings to the shrine, walking along about 1 km, on January 8.
They pray for the health and wellbeing of the members of 127 families living there.
This festival dates back to the Heian period, around the year 830.
Yamanokami is seen as a woman who gets angry quite easily.

. Yama no Kami matsuri 山の神祭り Yamanokami festivals .


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有馬郡 Arima district

Yamanokami no tatari 山の神の崇り curse of Yamanokami
If someone cuts a matsu 松 pine tree in the forest, he will be cursed by Yamanokami. He will hurt his neck and his nomi 鑿 chisel will not cut any more.

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朝来市 Asago city 生野町 Ikuno-cho

kaibutsu 怪物 monster
Around 1890, there lived a skilled forest worker named 兵右衛門 Hyoemon. On the day of the festival for Yamanokami he went to the forest. On his way back he stopped at the waterfall near the Shrine. There coming from downstream, he saw a strange creature as large as 10 Tatami mats, of green color, without a head or tail, climbing out of the river.
Hyoemon was frightend and run home as fast as he could, but fell ill on the same day and died a few days later.

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福崎町 Fukusaki 西田原 Nishi-Tawara

Yamanokami Koen 「山の神」公園 Park named Yamanokami
In the park are many Yokai statues, for example of 河童 Kappa and 天狗 Tengu.

There is also a statue of a mother inoshishi イノシシ wild boar, a 妖怪 Yokai monster named Yamanokami.
This statue had one a prize at the Japan-wide competition for Yokai statues. It is about 2 meters high and weighs 200 kg.
Yamanokami is known as an ugly woman, as causing accidents and snowstorms.

. Yamanokami and his messenger, inoshishi 猪 wild boar .

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姫路市 Himeji

In the 飾磨郡 Shikama district, it is not allowed to go to the forest on the Day of Yamanokami, the 9th day of the first lunar month.
If someone does, he will fall from the rocks and get hurt badly.


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出石町 Izushi

The Day of Yamanokami is the 9th day of the 12th lunar month.
On the Day of Yamanokami, nobody is allowed to go to the forest, because Yamanokami counts the trees.
The members of the special prayer group stay at home and say prayers.


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神崎郡 Kanzaki gun 神河町 Kamikawa village

. Black Cow, Black Bull  黒牛と伝説 kuro-ushi, kuroushi .


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- reference source : nichibun yokai database -

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. Legends about Yamanokami 山の神と伝説 .

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- - - - - . Join the Updates of Facebook ! . - - - - -


. Yama no Kami 山の神 - Table of Contents - .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

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sangaku shinkoo 山岳信仰 religion of the High Mountains is a different matter.

. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .

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- #yamanokamihiroshima #godofthemountains #tanokami #hiroshima #hyogo #yamanokamikofun -
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18/06/2016

Hashihime Bridge Deity

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .
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Hashihime, Hashi Hime 橋姫 / はし姫 "Princess of the Bridge"
"bridge maiden", "The Lady at the Bridge"


Uji no Hashi Hime 宇治の橋姫, 織津比売 (せおりつひめ)の神
. Checkpoints, barriers around Kyoto .

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- quote
Hashihime (橋姫) ("the maiden of the bridge")
is a character that first appeared in Japanese Heian-period literature, represented as a woman who spends lonely nights waiting for her lover to visit, and later as a fierce “oni” or demon fueled by jealousy. She came to be associated most often with a bridge in Uji.


Kyōka Hyaku-Monogatari 1853

Very little is known about the origin of Hashihime. The most common interpretation is that she was a lonely wife pining for her husband / lover to return but due to his infidelity, she became jealous and turned into a demon.
- source : wikipedia

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Hashihime no Yashiro 橋姫の社
Hashihime Jinja 橋姫神社 Hashihime Shrine




橋姫の社(はしひめのやしろ) は宇治橋の西づめにあり。はじめは二社なり。一社は洪水のとき漂流す。いま、礎存せり。
『古今』  さむしろに衣かたしくこよひもやわれをまつらんうぢの橋姫  読人しらず
この歌の評説をもって祭る神をしか云ふなり。『袖中抄』に、「住吉大明神橋姫の神にかよひ詠みたまふ歌なり」とぞ。清輔の説には、「山には山の神あり、橋には橋の神あり。姫とは佐保姫・竜田姫などに同じ。旧妻を橋姫になぞらふ」となり。一条禅閤(いちじょうぜんこう)の御説には、「離宮の神、夜ごとに通ひたまふとて、暁ごとにおびたたしく狼のたつ音のする」となん。
玄恵(げえん)法印の日く、「むかし嵯峨天皇の御とき、をとこにねたみある女、貴船のやしろに七夜丑の時参りして、この河瀬に髪をひたし悪鬼と化す。これを橋姫といふなり」。宗祇(そうぎ)の説には、「おもひかはしたる妻、立ちわかれて恋しきままに、『なれもわれをまつらん』とはし姫を妻によそへて、かこちいへる儀なるべし」。また『源氏物語』に「橋姫」の巻あり。これはなぞらへて書けるのみなり。この歌に付きてさまざまの儀侍れどもその詮なきよし、定家卿も宣ひけるとぞ。また逍遥院(しょうよういん)殿の御説も、清輔・宗祇のいふところに同じ。佐保姫・竜田姫・橋姫、これを三姫といふて、深き口授のあるよし、歌道の師によりて明らむべし。


あじろ木にいざよふ浪の音ふけてひとりやねぬるうちの橋姫 
ajirogi ni izayou nami no oto fukete hitori ya nenuru uji no hashihime 
慈円 - Jien (1155 - 1225) - 『新古』

橋姫のおるや錦とみゆるかな紅葉いざよふうぢの河波  
後宇多院 Gouda-In (Gouda Tenno) (1267 - 1324) - 『新千』 


宇治市宇治蓮華47 Uji
- source : sites.google.com/site/miyakomeisyo -


Writing Margins: The Textual Construction of Gender in Heian and Kamakura Japan
By Terry Kawashima
The figure of Hashihime, . . .
- with poems about the Hashihime
- source : books.google.co.jp -



はし姫のもみぢ重やかりてましたびねは寒し宇治の川かぜ
Hashihime no momijigasane ya kari te mashi tabine wa samushi Uji no kawakaze.

Wondering if I should borrow
from the Princess of Bridges
this robe of autumn leaves—
my rest while traveling so cold...
the Uji River wind.


Otagaki Rengetsu (1791 - 1875)

- source : rengetsu.org/poetry_db -


さむしろに衣かたしきこよひもや我をまつらむうぢのはしひめ
samushiro ni koromo katashiki koyo mo ya ware o matsuramu uji no hashihime

On a thin straw mat
Beneath a single layer of clothes
On this night, too,
I wonder, does she await me,
My maid at Uji Bridge.


source : Anonymous - wakapoetry.net



さむしろや待つ夜の秋の風ふけて. 月をかたしく宇治の橋姫
samushiro ya matsu yo no aki no kaze fukete tsuki wo katashiku uji no hashihime

How cold!
waiting out the autumn’s weary night
deepening as the wind blows
she spreads out the moon’s light
the Princess of Uji Bridge.


Fujiwara no Teika
- source : wikipedia -


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- quote -
橋姫(はしひめ)
は、橋にまつわる日本の伝承に現れる女性・鬼女・女神である。
- Image 鳥山石燕『今昔画図続百鬼』より「橋姫」。解説文に「橋姫の社は山城の国宇治橋にあり」とあることから、宇治の橋姫を描いたものと解釈されている。
- Image 鳥山石燕『今昔画図続百鬼』より「丑の刻参り」
- Image 現在の堀川と戻り橋
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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- quote -
Hashihime – The Bridge Princess
From Mizuki Shigeru, Yōkai Stories
Nothing quite embodies the saying “Hell hath no fury like a woman scorned” like the Hashihime. A human woman consumed by jealousy and hatred, she transformed herself through sheer willpower—and the assistance of a helpful deity who taught her a complicated ritual—into a living demon of rage and death. A yokai from the Heian period, she is one of the most powerful and fierce creatures in Japan’s menagerie.



What Does Hashihime Mean?
With only two kanji, her name is straight-forward: 橋 (hashi; bridge) 姫 (hime; princess). But there is a secret meaning hidden inside. In ancient Japanese, the word airashi (愛らしい; pretty; charming; lovely; adorable) could be pronounced “hashi.” So “Hashihime the Bridge Princess” was also a homophone for (愛姫) “Hashihime the Pretty Princess.”
The only real question is why does such a horrible demon have such a lovely, delicate name? This is because the name predates the monster. There have been Bridge Princesses—benign deities of the water—for far longer than there have been jealous women with crowns of iron and burning torches clenched between their teeth.
- - - Hashihime as Water Goddess
Going back into ancient, pre-literate Japan, there has long been a mythology built around bridges. Japan was—and still is—an animistic culture where nature is embodied by spirits of good and ill. The wonders of nature, like particularly large and twisted trees or odd and out of place rocks, had their own guardian deities called kami. Rivers too, especially large rivers, were the abodes of gods. ...
In the year 905 CE, we get one of the oldest known written mentions of the Hashihime, in a poem from the 14th scroll of the Kokin Wakashū (古今和歌集; Collection of Poems of Ancient and Modern Times). This is especially notable because it mentions not just any Hashihime, but the Hashihime of Uji—a legend that would come to dominate all images of this fantastic creature.

Upon a narrow grass mat
laying down her robe only
tonight, again –
she must be waiting for me,
Hashihime of Uji


- - - Hashihime as Female Demon
How the transformation happened—from benign, sexy river goddess to avatar of female rage—is unknown. Most likely it happened like all folklore, organically and over time. The shrines to the Hashihime existed near bridges, and as people forgot their original purpose they began to make up new stories. Most of these stories tended to include some legend of the Hashihime as “woman done wrong.” There are old legends of a woman whose husband went off to war and never came back, and she wept by the river bank in sorrow until she was transformed into the Hashihime. Others are stories of jealousy and revenge. ...
While Lady Rokujo is not the Hashihime, ...
- - - The Heike Monogatari and the Hashihime of Uji
...The Heike Monogatari emphasizes repeatedly than the Hashihime is a “still-living” oni. ...
Toriyama’s Text:
“The Goddess Hashihime lives in the under the Uji Bridge in Yamashiro province (Modern day Southern Kyoto). That is the explanation for this drawing of the Hashihime of Uji.”
- - - Kanawa 鉄輪 – The Iron Crown
The Noh play Kanawa (鉄輪; The Iron Crown) comes from one of the versions of the Hashihime story from the Heike Monogatari. ...
- - - Other Hashihime
Although she is by far the most famous, the Hashihime of Uji is not the only Hashihime. Nagarabashi bridge over the Yodogawa river in Osaka and the Setanokarabashi bridge over the Setagawa river in Sega prefecture also lay claim to their own Hashihimes.
- - - The Hashihime Shrine
..... Shrine records claim the Hashihime Shrine dates back to 646 CE, making it older than most known legends of the Hashihime of Uji. Most likely it was originally dedicated to the water goddess under the bridge, and the kami of the shrine evolved along with the legends. ...
- source : Zack Davisson -

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- quote -
The Tale of the Hashihime of Uji
Translated from the Heike Monogatari
During the Imperial reign of the Emperor Saga, there lived a courtly lady consumed by jealousy. So powerfully was she in jealousy’s grip that she made a pilgrimage to the shrine at Kifune and cloistered in prayer. For seven days, she devoted herself to a single-minded wish: “Oh great and powerful Kami of Kifune, grant me the powers of a devil while I am still living. Make me a fierce being, terrible to behold. Let my outer form match the flame of jealousy that burns so brightly within. Let me kill.”



That great miracle-working Kami of Kifune understood the depths of her desire, and heeded her call. “I am moved by pity and by the sincerity of your prayer. If you wish to become a living oni, to change into a monstrous form, get thee to the Kawase river in Uji. Perform the ceremony I shall now teach you, and then return to submerge yourself in the waters of the river. Do this for 21 days.” This courtly lady saw and heard the manifestation of this celestial being, and was in rapture.
- continued here
- source : Zack Davisson -


. ikiryoo 生霊 . 生き霊 Ikiryo“living spirit” .
vengeful spirit, mostly female
ushi no toki mairi

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totose 十歳 - an expression from the Genji Monogatari.
Hashi Hime, Hashihime 橋姫

その人もかしこにてうせ侍にし後ととせあまりにて
sono hito mo kashiko ni te use haberi ni shi nochi,
totose amari nite

quote
A pictorial subject based on "The Lady at the Bridge" Hashihime, Chapter 45 of GENJI MONOGATARI 源氏物語 (The Tale of Genji).



The last ten chapters of the Tale are known as UJI JUUJOU 宇治十帖 (The Ten Books of Uji). This chapter, the first of the ten, introduces the Eighth Prince Hachi no miya 八宮, a half-brother of Genji, and his two daughters, Ooigimi 大君 and Naka no kimi 中君, who live with him in his self-imposed retirement at Uji (south of Kyoto). The prince is known for his piety and wisdom. Kaoru 薫, whose serious character is engendered by deep misgivings about his paternity, begins to study under Hachi no miya.
Eventually he learns from Ben no kimi 弁君, the daughter of *Kashiwagi's 柏木 wet nurse, that he is not in fact Genji's son, but rather the illegitimate son of Kashiwagi. The scene most frequently chosen for illustration shows Ooigimi playing a lute biwa 琵琶 and Naka no kimi a harp koto 琴 under the moon and clouds while Kaoru secretly peers in through a break in the villa's bamboo fence.
This scene survives in a section of the earliest illustrated version (12c) in the Tokugawa 徳川 Art Museum.
source : Jaanus


. Matsuo Basho - totose 十歳 .
aki totose kaette Edo o sasu kokyoo

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Tea Bowl, Known as "Hashihime" (bridge maiden)
Mino ware, Shino type, Azuchi-Momoyama - Edo period, 16th - 17th century



- source : Tokyo National Museum -

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- Reference : 橋姫
- Reference : Hashihime


. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .

- #hashihime #hashihimeshrine #japanesehistory #chawan -
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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

Shrine Hashihime no Yashiro, Uji
京都府宇治市宇治蓮華47番地

If the procession of a wedding passes before this shrine, someone will certainly become very ill or even die. It is also possible that the wedding will not be successful and the couple divorced.

During the Time of Minamoto no Raikō many people suddenly disappeared.
When he investigated the events, he found that during the times of 嵯峨天皇 Saga Tenno a very jealous woman cast a spell at 貴船の社 Kifune Shrine.
The shrine is therefore associated with the Ushi no toki mairi 丑の時参り, the ritual of wearing candles on one's head and laying a curse at a shrine during the "hour of the Ox", since it is from the resident deity that Hashihime learns the prescribed ritual to turn herself into an oni鬼 demon to exact vengeance.
This story is told in the Noh play Kanawa 金輪 ("The Iron Crown").

. 源頼光 Minamoto no Yorimitsu, Raiko (948 - 1021) .
Minamoto no Raikō


- reference : nichibun yokai database -

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08/03/2016

hitsuki hifumi shinji

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. Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .
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hitsuki (hifumi, hitsuku) shinji 日月神示



A divine revelation introduced by
Okamoto Tenmei 岡本天明 (1897 - 1963)


- quote
日月神示(ひつきしんじ、ひつくしんじ)は、神典研究家で画家でもあった岡本天明に「国常立尊」(別名、国之常立神)と呼ばれている高級神霊より自動書記によって降ろされたとされる神示である。
- source : wikipedia


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A revelation of Ameno Hitsukunokami

- quote -
日月神示(ひふみ神示)とは?



日月神示(ひつきしんじ)とは、昭和の第二次世界大戦中、千葉県成田市にある麻賀多神社の末社・天之日津久神社にて、岡本天明という人物に神懸かった神霊によって書記された神示(預言書)です。
- source : cultural-experience.blogspot.jp -


Hitsuki Shinji: A Shinto-inspired teaching

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- quote -
First ever English translation of the Hitsuki Shinji
What is Hikarikyokwai Society?
Jehova revealed Himself to those elects of old Judea in the times when He felt that it is necessary to do so. Books of Moses were written like that and those books of prophets the same. However, if we limit that such a revelation could be given only to them, St. John’s revelation as the last and never afterward, doesn’t it sound unreasonable? Why can’t Jehova have any elects among those nations which are not Jews? Isn’t hat also thinkable that God is willing to reveal Himself to the Asiatic nations sometimes?

Swedenbrog had to explain exactly the same sort of thing while he was woking hard to write down what the Lord has shown him in 18th century. Zeal of these notes is to introduce that we have the same sort of case which has taken place here in Japan since June of 1944.

It was in the suite of Shinto shrine Mahgata, in Kohzu-mura, Chiba prefecture, when a Japanese painter Mr. Okamoto was there. He got a kind of shock and painful impulses to write. He wrote down what he himself could not read at all at the beginning. But it was much afterward that those writings were found to be quite valuable.

They can be said a revelation of Ameno Hitsukunokami dictated by Hitsukunokami, that is a kind of divine revelation that was given to Japanese nation at the close of the war. However, we are convinced that this revelation is not addressed only to Japanese alone but to whole nation of the world, and that’s the reason the Hikarikyokwai Society started to publish this tabloid both in English and Japanese.

Concerning the reasons why it can be said divine revelation addressed to the whole nation of the world, shall be understood with the study of the said revelation itself, which would be introduced here afterwards. However, some characteristic points of the said revelation is that it shows very intimate relationship between so called divine scriptures of the world.

There are many who found very deep truth in it and who are convinced that things shown through the revelation are true and the commandments written in it must be fulfilled. Hikarikyokwai Society is the name to the group of such people.

Following is the English translation of another part from the revelation. [This is from Book 1, Chapter 1. –AHM]
- snip -
Example of original writing.
一んねんTけ二〇かmaruchonの三三一四もの一二四キ・T一八〇二もか〇二もか三〇つれ十も四で

English translation from the original writing, illustrated.
“This revelation can be understood in the measure of the depth of each soul destined to understand. The time has come the divine truth shall be preached. If not even stones shall take the role of human souls. Let us hear that the nature, mountain river and else, is revealing the divine truth day and night.”

Behold! Fuji has driven off clouds of chaos, and all heavens are cleared.
- source : Avery Morrow -




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- Reference : 日月神示
- Reference : hitsuki shinji


. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .

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- #hitsukishinji #hifumishinji -
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01/02/2016

Hikosan Shrines Fukuoka

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. Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .
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Hikosan  英彦山 / 彦山 Hikosan Shrines, Fukuoka and Oita
大分県中津市 / 福岡県田川郡添田町 Soeda-Machi, Tagawa-gun, Fukuoka

There are three peaks, Minami-dake (Southern Peak) 南岳 (1,200m), Naka-dake (Middle Peak) 中岳 (1,188m) Kita-Dake 北岳 (Northern Peak) (1,192m) and various Shrines on the way.
There are three torii gates as the stone steps go up the uppermost shrine on the mountain.

Hikosan Jingu 英彦山神宮 - 奉幣殿 Hohei-Den at about 720 meters high.
The main deity of the mountain is Hikosan Gongen 彦山権現 - (see below) - .

And the shrine at the top - 英彦山神宮上津宮


source : wikipedia

On the way up the long stone stairway there are various torii 鳥居 Shrine gates to pass, each leading to a different, deeper realm of the sacred mountain.

kane no torii 銅鳥居 The Great Bronze Gate at the entrance is about 7 meters high. It has been an offering by the lord of Shiga Domain, 鍋島勝茂 Nabeshima Katsushige (1580 - 1676).

ni no torii 二の鳥居 second gate
san no torii 石製の三の鳥居 third gate made from stone

- reference and photos : tetsuyosie/fukuoka -

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Hiko-san is one of Kyushu’s finest hikes. During autumn, the colours of the turning leaves are simply stunning; vivid hues of red, gold and purple adding brilliance to the hike’s many panoramic view points.
Hiko-san is notable also for its shrines which line the trail. The largest of these,
Hohei-den 奉幣殿 (built in 1616), is the most majestic and can be enjoyed for its history and magnificent sloping roof.



From Kane-no-torii there are two options for ascending to the start of the trail. The recommended option is to walk the great stone staircase to Hohei-den, which can be found just to the left of the car park. This ancient staircase, lined by maple and camphor trees, passes under several torii gates and has been well-trodden and worn by centuries of pilgrims travelling to Hohei-den. In 2005, a small mono-rail was built that runs parallel to the staircase and will transport you to Hohei-den in just under 15 minutes.
Just in front of the main shrine, a steep staircase runs upwards. This staircase continues to the Naka-dake (1,188m) summit . . .

Tamaya-jinja 玉屋神社,
which is built into a sheer cliff that rises impressively over the shrine. A sacred spring lies next to the shrine, where water coalesces in small droplets that drip from the roof of a moss covered grotto.

Onisugi 鬼杉, "Demon's cedar", a 1,200 year old cedar tree that presides over the rest of the forest.

Daiminami-jinja 大南神社
which, like Tamaya-jinja is built into the rock face behind it. A set of chains leads up the mountain to the right of the shrine, aiding the ascent.

On top of Naka-dake lies Jōgū 上宮, the uppermost shrine of Hōhei-Den.


Takasumi-jinja 高住神社,
the final shrine of the hike. Secluded in a forest, this shrine rivals both the majesty of Hohei-den and the beauty of Tamya-jinja. A bronze bull has been made golden by the touch of passersby and is supposed to possess healing powers, which may come in use after the tricky descent.

- - - - - Look at more photos and the full text :
- source : fukuoka-now.com - Oscar Boyd -

- - - - - Deities in residence - - - - -
Amenooshihomimi no Mikoto 天之忍穂耳命
Izanagi and Izanami no Mikoto





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shuin 朱印 stamp and stamp book



omamori お守り amulet


The shrine was originally built in 740 as a center of training for the Shugendō sect of Buddhism. However, the Shugendō temple was abolished by the separation of Shinto from Buddhism, introduced after the Meiji Restoration. Reisen-ji (霊泉寺), the head temple of the Tendai Buddhism, was converted into Hikosan Jinja (英彦山神社).
In 1975, it was renamed to its present name, Hikosan Jingū.


CLICK for more photos of the shrine !

- - - - - HP of the Shrine
- source : hikosanjingu.or.jp -

- List of all the sub-shrines in the precincts:
- source : hikosanjingu.or.jp/info -

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wakudo iwa わくど岩 the Frog Rock
Wakudo わくど is the local dialect for frog or toad.



In the middle of Mount Hikosan three is a plain called Takasuhara たかす原 with a special rock formation,
just like a huge frog 蟇.
Once upon a time
a great frog came up to Mount Hikosan. He was heading for a smaller hill and begun his climb slowly. But as he climbed up slowly, the nearby fields and paddies sunk into a muddy sea. Many farmers were in deep trouble now. When Hikosan Gongen saw what happened, he threw the huge frog down from the hill and in no time the fields and paddies were back in their former splendor.
But a few years later, the huge frog started his climb again, each year the length of one grain of rice and if he would ever reach the top, the whole region would become submerged by the sea. This time Hikosan Gongen wanted to prevent the huge frog from doing any further damage to the farmers and removed the small hill from the region.
Again the huge frog tumbled down to the plain and there became a huge rock.


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亀石坊 Kameishi-Bo "Turtle Stone Dwelling"

The Old Kameishibo Garden 旧亀石坊庭園 is a garden which was built by the Muromachi Era artist-monk Sesshu.




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Hikosan odori 彦山踊 / 英彦山踊り Hikosan dance

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Three traditional performing arts of Soeda Machi
In the Kamitsuno and Shimotsuno settlements in Soeda Machi, the "Tsuno Kagura" is dedicated for the Jinko-sai (Jinko festival) held by Takagi Shrine at the beginning of May every year. The kagura (Shinto music and dance performance) is performed by the Tsuno Kagura Preservation Association, and performance items consist of the following 12 performance items:
"Kome-maki," "Orii," "Mifuku," "Shime kiri," "Ji-wari," "bon," "San-no kiri," "San-bon Tsurugi," "Tsuna Misaki,"
"Yumi Kagura," "Hana Kagura," and "Iwato."
In Noda settlement,
the "Noda Shishi-gaku" is dedicated for the Jinko-sai (Jinko festival) held by Kamo Shrine at the beginning of May every year. Performing groups are divided mainly into the "gaku-uchi" group (who play musical instruments) and the "shishimai" group, where gaku-uchi is performed by elementary school boys and shishimai is performed by young adult men. There are five performance items:
"Godan," "Maeniwa," "Baba-iri," "Shin Baba-iri," and "Shinden Utsushi."



"Hiko-san Odori" (Hiko-san dance) is a highly elegant dance which is said to have been introduced by the priest of Hikosan Shrine in the Nanbokucho period (the Northern and Southern Courts period) around 1333. This dance is performed every year as a dedication for the "opening of Hiko-san mountain" and as a "requiem prayer."
- source : bunkashisan.ne.jp -


幣たてゝ彦山踊月の出に
nusa tatete Hikosan odori tsuki no de ni

placing the Nusa wand
for the Hikosan dance
as the moon comes out


. Sugita Hisajo 杉田久女 .
Hisajo liked the area and even climbed to the peak of the mountain.


. Kagura Dance 神楽 - Introduction .

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Hikosan shinkō 英彦山信仰
Beliefs and practices associated with Mt Hiko, in the southern part of Fukuoka Prefecture, Kyushu. Hiko is made up of three peaks: Minamidake, Nakadake, and Kitadake, the highest of which is Minamidake at 1200 m.

Formerly "Hiko" was written with the characters 日子, meaning "child of the sun"; in the first half of the ninth century, during the reign of the Emperor Saga, it was changed to the single character 彦, and then again to 英彦, its present designation, in 1729, at the order of the Retired Emperor Reigen.
According to the Kamakura-period Hikosan ruki, the Gongen of the Three Places of Mt Hiko (Hikosan sansho gongen) was composed of Mt Zokutai in the south (Shaka), Mt Hottai in the north (Amida) and Mt Nyotai in the center (Thousand-armed Kannon).
The present shrine Hikosan Jingū Honsha (the jōgū, or "upper shrine") is located on the central peak and amalgamates the enshrined deities (saijin) of the other two peaks. Formerly there were nine other sacred sites:
Mt. Hakusan, Daigyōji, Kitayamadono, Hannya Cave (Tamaya), Ōminami Cave, Buzen Cave, Chimuro Cave, Takanosu Cave, and the middle shrine (chūgū).

Added to the Gongen of the Three Places, they were worshipped as the Gongen of the Twelve Places (Hikosan jūnisho gongen). Altogether there were 49 caves, sites of veneration and religious training, which were considered to correspond to the 49 halls of the Tushita heaven, the dwelling-place of Maitreya. Each was said to have contained statues of the Gongen of the Three Places or protector deities, but today the only ones which remain sites of veneration are the Hannya, Ōminami, Buzen and Chimuro caves.
The caves can be thought to preserve an aspect of religious practice which was prominent in the medieval period, that of retreat (komori) inside caves, before the introduction of mountain asceticism in the form of moving from one sacred place to another (tosō).

Seasonal mountain entry rituals (junbu in spring, hanaku no mine in summer and gyakubu in autumn) took form during the Muromachi period. Here, Mt Hiko was considered to be the realm of the Womb Mandala, while the role of Diamond Mandala was fulfilled by Mt Hōman in spring and Mt Fukuchi in autumn.

Forty-eight places of ascetic training (gyōba) were established over a sixty kilometer route through the mountains, and the goal of training was represented as the unity of the two mandalas. Most of the sites fell into disuse after the discontinuation of mountain-entry rituals in 1870.

According to founding legends, Ame no Oshihomimi, son of Amaterasu, descended to this mountain and was enshrined here, En no Ozunu, with his mother on his back, climbed Mt Hiko and then went to China by way of Mt Hōman, and Jugen, having trained at Ōmine, brought the divided spirit of Kumano Gongen here.

Another legend says that Zenshō, a priest from the state of Northern Wei in China, brought a Buddhist statue to Hiko and taught a hunter called Fujiwara Kōyū about the precept of not taking life by means of a miraculous occurrence whereby he restored to life, as a white hawk, a white deer the hunter had pursued and shot.

In 538 Zenshō built a hermitage called Reisen on the mountain, and Kōyū, having taken the Buddhist name Ninniku, became his successor. The third priest in the lineage, Hōren, went to Kyoto at the order of the Emperor Saga; at this time the characters to write Hiko were changed (see above) and the hermitage was given the temple name of Reisenji.
It also received a land commendation ("seven ri in the four directions"), which it kept throughout the medieval period.

Hiko later thrived as a center for yamabushi; at its height it had 3800 priests, and, with Ōmine and Haguro, it was counted as one of the three great Shugendō sites of Japan.
In 1333, the imperial prince Yasuhito (said to have been a son of the Emperor Go-Fushimi) was invited to the temple as its head prelate (zasu 座主), and the shrine-temple complex on the mountain was organized under a hereditary married head, made up of priests (shūtō), kami priests (jinin) and shugen priests.
Shugendō rituals and organization became fixed during the Muromachi period.

Of particular importance were doctrinal developments, in which Hiko played a leading role. A comprehensive compilation of records was made by Akyūbō Sokuden (dates unknown), who had come to Hiko from Nikkō.

In the Edo period, Hiko was not under the authority of either Honzanha or Tōzanha, but maintained its independence from them. However in 1696, as a result of a dispute with Shōgoin (head temple of Honzanha), Hiko was designated a "special headquarters Shugen temple of Tendai" (Tendai Shugen bekkaku honzan). Its economic base was an income of 1200 koku donated by the Hosokawa and Ogasawara clans, plus the distribution of talismans and medicines among supporters (danna) throughout Kyushu, as well as the promotion of pilgrimage (sankei) to Hiko.
By the end of the Edo period,
it had 250 shugen priests and around 420,000 households in its parishes. The organization of the yamabushi was threefold – gyōjakata, shūtōkata, and sōkata, with lower-ranking shugen priests below them. All were under the authority of the zasu.
As a result of the separation of buddha and kami worship (shinbutsu bunri) and anti-Buddhist actions (haibutsu kishaku), virtually all buildings associated with Shugendō were lost, with the exception of the former Great Hall, which was converted into the shrine's Buheiden. Shugendō ritual was also abolished.
The shrine-temple complex known as Hikosan Gongen became Hikosan Shrine, the Buzenbō became Takanushi Shrine, and Hannyakutsu became Tamaya Shrine.
The zasu became the hereditary gūji. The shrine supported devotees of the confraternities (kō), drawn mainly from farming families.
The clay bell, a famous souvenir of Mt Hiko, is still used as a magical implement for agricultural rituals among farmers.
- source : Suzuki Masataka Kokugakuin 2006 -

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Hikosan no garagara 英彦山のガラガラ  clay bell clapper against insects

They are a kind of clay bell (Hikosan dorei 英彦山土鈴), said to be the oldest ones used by the Shugendo ascetics.

Some even had a tengu goblin mask on the bell
Hikosan no iwaidai dorei 英彦山の祝鯛土鈴 clay bell with festive sea bream
筒型鳥居鈴 clay bell with the metal torii gate
Hikosan no itajishi 英彦山の板獅子 lion head on a wooden plate
- - - - - Haiku about 豊前坊 Buzen-Bo.
- - - - - annual festivals 祭典行事

. Amulets from Hikosan 英彦山 お守り .

. Buzenboo, Buzenbō 豊前坊 Buzenbo Tengu .
彦山豊前坊 - Hikozan Buzenbo, Fukuoka

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Hikosan Gongen Chikai no Sukedachi  彦山権現誓助剣
Kabuki play




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The play "Hikosan Gongen Chikai no Sukedachi" was originally written for the puppet theater (Bunraku) and staged for the first time in the 10th lunar month of 1786 in Ôsaka at the Higashi no Shibai.
- - - - - Summary
Disguising himself as a traveling gambler named Dôhachi, Takumi preys on passers-by by his rigged gambling. When one of the victims accuses him of fraud, Takumi beats him up. He then exchanges pleasantries with street girls and goes away.

Sagohei, an old servant to Osono, appears and, giving money to the street girls, asks them to go away immediately. After they have gone, Osono arrives in a palanquin and, pretending to be a street girl, solicits passers-by. She inserts her hand into their sleeves and feels their arms as a means of identifying Takumi, who has a scar in the upper arm.

She makes her try first on a samurai and then on a sumô wrestler. The third person approached by her happens to be Todoroki Dengoemon, a former fencing disciple of Ichimisai and now chief retainer of the Lord of Kokura. He recognizes Osono as Ichimisai's daughter and gives her a wooden traveling certificate, which would enable her to pass through barriers on her tour in search of Takumi.

After Todoroki Dengoemon has gone, Tomohei arrives and tells Osono that Okiku was killed by Takumi. As evidence he shows a small bag containing Takumi's navel string which he found beside Okiku's body. He then kills himself by way of apology for his failure to protect Okiku from Takumi's attack. Just before he breathes his last, Tomohei throws Takumi's navel string into a pond. In no time clouds of spray rise from the pond and the incense burner in Osono's bosom issues a strange sound.

Takumi reappears as if drawn by a supernatural power. He realizes by intuition that he is the son of the late Mitsuhide. Believing that his deceased father threw his precious Kawazumaru sword into this pond and that he now wants Takumi to recover it, he looks for and finds the sword under floating weeds. Soon after he has picked up the sword Osono approaches Takumi, pretending to be a street girl and tries to rob him of the sword. Takumi resists. As the two struggle for its possession, the sword jumps onto a gourd trellis. They too climb onto the trellis and continue fighting.
At last Takumi makes good his escape, taking the precious sword with him.
- reference source : kabuki21.com/hyotandana -

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Amenooshihomimi - Ame no oshihomimi no mikoto
Other names:
Masakaakatsu kachihayahi ame no oshihomimi no mikoto (Kojiki,Nihongi),
Masakaakatsu kachihayahi ame no oshihone no mikoto(Nihongi)
正勝吾勝勝速日天之忍穂耳命(アメノオシホミミ)/ 正勝吾勝勝速日天忍穂耳命


One of the male kami produced as a result of the trial by pledge (ukei) performed by Amaterasu and Susanoo.
According to both Kojiki and Nihongi, Amaterasu and Susanoo furnished personal items as "seed" (monozane) for the pledge; Amaterasu furnished the "Five-hundred Yasaka jewels" which she wore, and from those were produced five male deities, one of which was Amenooshihomimi.
Oshihomimi was later ordered by Amaterasu and Takagi no kami to descend to the Central Land of Reed Plains, but it was first necessary to pacify the Central Land, and in the interval, Oshihomimi had a son, Ninigi. As a result, following pacification of the land, Ninigi was entrusted with the mission, and he descended in place of Oshihomimi.
- reference source : Nishioka Kazuhiko Kokugakuin 2005-


Masakaakatsukachihayahi Amenooshihomimi no mikoto
Karl Florenz übersetzt mit
„Die [mit dem Rufe:] ‚Wahrlich ich siege!‘ triumphierend sich heftig gebarende allüberwindende große erlauchte Person des Himmels“) ist ein männlicher Kami in der Mythologie des Shintō.
..... Amaterasu erkor Amenooshihomimi zur Herrschaft (shirasu) über das „Land der frischen Ähren der tausend Herbste und langen fünfhundert Herbste des Üppigen Schilfgefildes“
- Read the explanation in German:
. Ninomiya Jinja 二宮神社 Shrine Ninomiya - Kobe .

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- - - - - The three famous Hikosan Sanctuaries in Japan :

英彦山 Hikosan in Fukuoka/Oita
弥彦山(新潟県)Yahikosan in Niigata
雪彦山(兵庫県)Seppikosan in Hyogo

The three famous Shugendo Sanctuaries in Japan :

英彦山 Hikosan in Fukuoka/Oita
羽黒山(山形県) Hagurosan Yamagata
熊野大峰山(奈良県) Kumano Ominesan Nara


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- Reference : 英彦山
- Reference : English


. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .

- #hikosanfukuoka #AmenoOshihomimi -
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英彦山の頂に置く夏帽子
Hikosan no itadaki ni oku natsubooshi

at the top
of Mount Hikosan I place
my summer hat


松尾隆信 Matsuo Takanobu

- reference : Matsuo Takanobu -

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英彦山の露降りてきし机かな
黒田杏子

英彦山の日暮うながす閑古鳥
荒巻信子

彦山や雲はひのぼる葛根ほり
水田正秀

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. Fudō Myō-ō 不動明王 Fudo Myo-O .

英彦山大権現 湯の谷別院 Hikosan Yunotani Betsu-In




source : robounohana.seesaa.net

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Mountain Mandalas - Shugendo in Kyushu
Allan G. Grapard

In Mountain Mandalas Allan G. Grapard provides a thought-provoking history of one aspect of the Japanese Shugendo tradition in Kyushu, by focusing on three cultic systems: Mount Hiko, Usa-Hachiman, and the Kunisaki Peninsula. Grapard draws from a rich range of theorists from the disciplines of geography, history, anthropology, sociology, and humanistic geography and situates the historical terrain of his research within a much larger context.
- - - - - Table of Contents
1. Shugendo and the Production of Social Space
- - - Mount Hiko
2. Geotyped and Chronotyped Social Spaces
- - - Mount Hiko: of swords, meteors, dragons, and goshawks
- - - Waiting for dawn on Mount Hiko: the geotype and chronotype of heterotopia
- - - Mount Hiko's Sacred Perimeter: four corners and three dimensions
3. Festivities and Processions: Spatialities of Power
- - - Mount Hiko as a socio-ritualized space
- - - Mount Hiko's conflicts with Mount Homan and the Shogo-in monzeki
- - - Mount Hiko's ritual calendar
4. Shattered Bodies, Statues, and the Appeal of Truncated Memory
- - - Mount Hiko's quasi-destruction and fall into irrelevance
and more
- source : bloomsbury.com/au/mountain-mandalas -

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. 河童 / かっぱ / カッパ - Kappa, the Water Goblin of Japan! .

There are many legends about the Kappa in Soeda and around Mount Hikosan.



Kappa no wabi shoomon seki カッパの詫び証文石
stone memorial of the Kappa and his apology note


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昔、中元寺は虫生の庄といって、芦がしげる湿地が多くあった。
ある日の夕方のこと、一人の子供のような者が、民家を訪ね「今夜大雨が降って山が抜けるから逃げておくれ」といって回った。
人びとは、おかしなことだなあと思いながらも、避難をした。やがて夜になると、予告どおり大雨で川ははんらんし、猿渡あたりは山崩れが起こった。
これをみた村人は「あの子供は、瀬成の神に仕えているカッパに違いない、よくぞ知らせてくれた」と、カッパをかわいがってやることになった。
そうするとカッパはつけあがり、田畑を荒したり、子供を川に引き込んだりして村人を困らせるようになった。それで瀬成の神様は大変立腹されて、カッパに対し「悪さをするなら出て行け、心を入れかえるなら中元寺におらせるが」としかりつけた。
これにはカッパもこたえて反省し、石に詫び証文を書いて神様に差し出した。それ以後、中元寺の人びとは水難にあうことはなくなった。
カッパの詫び証文石は、瀬成神社参道入口右側のハゼの木の根元に抱きこまれたようになって残っている。
- reference : hikosan.sblo.jp/article -

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