Showing posts with label - - Z - - Shrine - - -. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - - Z - - Shrine - - -. Show all posts

18/08/2017

Yama no Kami Legends

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. kami 神 Shinto deities .
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Yama no Kami, Yama-no-Kami 山の神 God of the Mountain
Introduction and Legends


Yama no Kami is an important deity of the rice farming communities and comes in many colors in rural Japan.
Yama here refers to the
. Satoyama 里山 "Village Mountain Forest" .
In Spring he comes down to the rice fields to protect the harvest, then called
Ta no Kami 田の神 God of the Fields
paddy field kami, god of the rice paddies, spirit of the rice field
Ta no Kami is the busier part of this two-fold deity.

In Autumn after the harvest, Ta no Kami goes back to the Satoyama mountain or forest behind the village to take a rest and collect strength for the next season.
There are many stone monuments in his honour near the fields and at roadsides.
During festivals in his honor, people hang paintings in their home or the local Shinto shrine to venerate this deity.
Some Yama no Kami have even taken on rather individual features of a local hero.
Yama no Kami is also the deity of hunters and mountain forest workers.



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- - - - - Table of Contents - - - - -

. Ta no Kami, Ta-no-Kami 田の神 Tanokami, God of the Fields - Introduction .

. - Yama no Kami 山の神 - Introduction - . (this page)
. - Yama no Kami and Fudo Myo-O . (this page)
. - Yama no Kami and Kappa .
. - Yama no Kami and Oni . (this page)
. - Yama no Kami and Tengu .
. - Individual Mountain Peak Deities .
. - Regional Legends - From Aichi to Yamanashi .
. - Haiku and Kigo 俳句と季語 for Yama no Kami .
.......... yama no kami matsuri 山の神祭 Festival of Yama no Kami
. Yama no Kami - various news items .

- . Ta no Kami, Yama no Kami - Reference, Books and Links .

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- - - - - Yama no Kami - Introduction - - - - -

- quote -
Yamanokami - "Kami of the mountain."
While the term yama no kami is a general expression referring to any kami dwelling in a mountain, a number of differences exist between low-land agriculturalists and mountain folk (people who make their living from various forestry or mountain-related occupations) in the character of their yama no kami and respective ways of worshiping such kami. While the expression yama no kami is found throughout Japan, other locale-specific terms also exist, including sanjin, jūniyamakami, osatosama, and sagamisama.

Agriculturalists in many parts of Japan share the belief that the yama no kami and ta no kami (rice field kami) share a dual identity, traveling between mountain and village in spring and fall. In the spring, the yama no kami descends from the mountain and enters the rice field, where it becomes the ta no kami which looks over the growth of grain. Following the fall harvest, the ta no kami leaves the rice paddy and returns to the mountain, where it becomes the yama no kami until the next spring. This phenomenon indicates that the kami involved is conceived of as a single entity sharing both characterstics of yama no kami and ta no kami, and leading to a widely accepted theory that the kami's original identity was that of an ancestral spirit.

For Japanese farmers, the yama no kami represents a tutelary of agriculture responsible for bringing the water that is most crucial to rice farming. In contrast, the mountain peoples who make their livings by hunting, charcoal burning and forestry generally consider the yama no kami a tutelary of the mountain, but they do not share agriculturalists' belief that the yama no kami and ta no kami alternate between mountain and rice paddy. While some agriculturalists believe that the yama no kami is female, mountain peoples extend the concept by saying that the yama no kami bears twelve children each year, thus representing a kami with strong reproductive capabilities, and in some areas leading to an identification with the ubugami, a tutelary of infants and childbirth (see also ubusunagami). Further, woodturners (latheusing woodworkers called kijishi or rokuroshi), consider the yama no kami to be a married pair, and thus enshrine paired male and female images of the kami.

Mountain people's practices regarding the yama no kami tend to involve strict taboos or imi, for example, prohibitions against entering the mountain on the day of the kami's festival: since the kami counts the mountain's trees on that day; it is said that anyone cutting down a tree that day will be pinned under it and die. The yama no kami is also sometimes said to dislike women, or to be adverse to the pollutions of childbirth and menstruation. Some say that the yama no kami is an ugly hag, with the result that rituals are performed to flatter the kami by offering her items thought to be even uglier, in hopes she will respond by granting worshipers blessings from the mountains. This belief was thus linked to the practice of offering stonefish to the kami of the mountain.
- source : Kokugakuin, Iwai Hiroshi -

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Yama no Kami 山の神 has only one eye
Amanomahitotsu no kami 天目一箇神 / Amatsumara 天津麻羅
- "the one-eyed kami of heaven"



source : google.co.jp

- quote -
Amatsumara 天津麻羅
Other names: Amenomahitotsu no kami (Kogo shūi)
A kami of ironworking (kajishin).
Kojiki states that as the blacksmith of the Plain of High Heaven, Amatsumara was called upon to refine the iron used for making mirrors, using the "hard rocks of heaven" and the "metal mountain of heaven" located above the "Tranquil River of Heaven" (Amenoyasukawa). Together with Ishikoridome, he was said to have assisted in the making of the mirror used to lure Amaterasu from her hiding place in the rock cave of heaven. The name Amatsumara means ma-ura ("eye divination"), which some believe means "one-eyed," a reference to an occupational hazard of blacksmiths.
..... Mori Mizue, 2005, Kokugakuin

This deity is also called
noogami 農神 / ノウガミ様 No-gami - obosuna sama オボスナ様 / おぼすな様 Obosuna, Ubusuna deity
deity for agriculture, especially the rice fields and sake rituals.






There are more than 800 legends about this seasonal deity to be introduced here.
Ta no Kami legends will follow soon.
The contents follow the ABC list of the prefectures.

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楠元の山の神 Kusumoto no Ta no Kami



This stone statue was made in 1712.
- with more photos of Ta no Kami from Aira, Kagoshima
触田(ふれた)の田の神 / 福岡家の田の神 / 西田の田の神 / 日木山里の田の神
木津志の田の神 / 木津志堂崎の田の神
- reference source : city.aira.lg.jp/bunkazai/kanko... -


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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

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- - - - - Yama no Kami and Fudo Myo-O - - - - -

. 不動明王 Fudo Myo-O - Introduction .

....................................................................... Miyagi 宮城県 .....
刈田郡 Katta district 七ヶ宿町 Shichikashuku

Once upon a time
a master carpenter from Hida wanted to build 不動堂 a hall for Fudo Myo-O in one night. It was summer and the nights were quite short, so he could not finish his work. Therefore he threw away all the wood he had prepared and left the village. They all became different rocks along the left side of the river 白石川 Shiroishigawa, now called
柱岩、桁岩、染岩、ヌキ岩、角柱岩、敷板岩、萱岩.
To our day, the Yama no Kami takes pity on things here and if there is a flooding of the river, he stops it at the border of the village.

. Hida no Takumi 飛騨の匠 expert carpenter from Hida .


....................................................................... Tokyo 東京都 .....
西多摩郡 Nishitama district 桧原村 Hinohara village

When one becomes a true servant of the Kami, one is able to see its various features:
The Kami of 和田の山 Mount Wada is seen as 蛇 a serpent.
The Kami of 大沢の山 Mount Ozawa is seen as 小さい蛇 a small serpent.
The Kami of another mountain was seen as a pregnant woman.
The roadside Kami at the village border is seen as 火の神 a God of Fire.
Obusu-sama オズスナ様(産土神), the deity of birth is seen as Fudo Myo-O.

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- - - - - Yama no Kami and 鬼 Oni Demons - - - - -

. Onipedia - 鬼ペディア - Oni Demons - ABC-List - Index - .


岩木山の神と鬼 Gods and Demons from Mount Iwakisan (Aomori)
畠山篤 Hatakeyama Atsushi

第1章 
岩木山の神の由来譚の生成― 百沢寺・イタコ・村人の語り(百沢寺が語る岩木山権現由来譚;二つ目の丹後日和の由来;三つ目の丹後日和の由来;丹後日和の背景と変容;イタコが語る“お岩木様一代記” ほか)
第2章 
岩木山の鬼と水利伝承― 津軽の鬼・山人・大人(鬼・山人・大人伝承の分布と分類;単純型;山幸型;農耕型;鉄器型 ほか)


....................................................................... Akita 秋田県 .....

Once upon a time
the 男鹿の本山の神 Yama no Kami from the main mountain Honzan of the Oga Peninsula had demons as his followers.
They were allowed to go down to the villages on the 15th day of the New Year and scare the people.

. Namahage なまはげ / 生剥げ from Oga Hanto .


....................................................................... Niigata 新潟県 .....
佐渡郡 Sado district

Kinpokusan 金北山の神 Mount Kinpokusan (1,172 m)
昔、佐渡を治めていた金北山の神さまが、もし節分に撒いた豆から芽が出たら佐渡の国を譲ろうと鬼に約束する。このときの約束状が金北山のお堂の下に埋めてあるともいい、いくら鬼がとりに来ても、神さまは決してわたさないという。
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昔、佐渡を治めていた金北山の神さまが、もし節分に撒いた豆から芽が出たら佐渡の国を譲ろうと鬼に約束する。ところがある年、その豆から芽が出たので、神さまはあわててモグラを呼んで根を食いちぎらせ枯らしてしまった。鬼は怒って猫に命じてモグラを捕まえさせようとした。それ以降節分の豆はよく炒るようになったという。
.
昔、佐渡を治めていた金北山の神さまが、もし節分に撒いた豆から芽が出たら佐渡の国を譲ろうと鬼に約束する。ところがある年、その豆から芽が出たので、神さまはあわててモグラを呼んで根を食いちぎらせ枯らしてしまった。鬼は怒って猫に命じてモグラを捕まえさせようとした。それ以降節分の豆はよく炒るようになったという。


. Tonchibo トンチボ, Tonchiboo トンチボウ Tanuki from Sado .
Tonchibo is also a local name for the Deity of the Mountain Forest, Yama no Kami 山の神, and thus a taboo word for the local fisherman.

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白根市 Shirone town

gaki 餓鬼 hungry ghosts
2月16日と10月16日は田の神まつりが行われるが、10月16日にはワッパダンゴを盛って俵の上に供えて主人は山の神を囲炉裏の客座に座布団を敷いて招き、お茶のおもてなしをする。そして、それを餓鬼に飲ませるといって縁側へ捨て、供物は主人が食べる。


....................................................................... Yamaguchi 山口県 .....
下関市 Shimonoseki 蓋井島 Futaoijima Island

On this island there are four forests sacred to the Yama no Kami, 山の神の森 Yama no Kami no Mori.
They have their special legend.
A very long time ago
Four Oni demons from Shinra (Silla, Korea) came over the sea to invade Japan. 神功皇后 Regent-Empress Jingu Koogo invited them to a banquet and served them Sake with poison to get rid of them. Three of them fell down in the forest of Futaoi. One Demon fell down in 高野の森 the forest of Takano. Their enboku 魂魄 Demon Souls cursed the place and the islanders, so the islanders finally built a shrine to appease their souls.

蓋井島の八幡宮 Hachimangu on Futaoi Island



山の神の祭 Festival for Yama no Kami
- reference source : ameblo.jp/shimonose9m/entry... -


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. Ta no Kami, Ta-no-Kami 田の神 Tanokami, God of the Fields .


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sangaku shinkoo 山岳信仰 religion of the High Mountains is a different matter.

. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .

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22/07/2017

Takayama Inari Tsugaru

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. Shinto Shrines (jinja 神社) - Introduction .
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Takayama Inari Jinja 高山稲荷神社 Takayama Inari Shrine, Aomori


青森県つがる市牛潟町鷲野沢147-1 / Washinosawa-147-2 Ushigatacho, Tsugaru, Aomori

- quote
Takayama Inari Shrine is famous throughout northern Japan and is revered as a very efficacious shrine for prayers dealing with maritime safety, bountiful harvests, and business prosperity.
Its seemingly innumerable line of red torii gates is spectacular with the gates’ curves and twists being likened to those of a dragon.
The shrine is dedicated to the god Inari, a popular deity among Japanese shrines, the most famous being the Fushimi Inari Shrine in Kyoto.
Every year, the shrine attracts many visitors during its Grand Spring Festival and during the New Year’s holidays.
- source : city.tsugaru.aomori.jp...


高山稲荷神社【つがる市】
屏風山のちょうど真ん中に位置しています。神社のすぐ裏は七里長浜となっています。伏見稲荷神社と同じ稲荷大神が祭られており、五穀豊穣・海上安全・商売繁盛の神様として、青森随一の霊験あらたかな神社で、千本鳥居は、圧巻です。
- reference source : t-ate.com/archives... -


. Inari Matsuri 稲荷祭 Fox Shrine Festivals .




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shuin 朱印 stamp





引退した祠がずらりと並ぶ - 小神祠公園


Inari fox statues from all over Tohoku are "retired" here in a special park.


Old small shrines from all over Tohoku are "retired" here in a special park.

- - - - -  HP of the Shrine
- source : bqspot.com/tohoku/aomori -


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- Reference : 高山稲荷神社
- Reference : English


. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .


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- #takayamainari #tsugarutakayama -
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06/03/2017

Fukuo Shrine Mie

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. Shinto Shrines (jinja 神社) - Introduction .
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Fukuo Jinja 福王神社 Fukuo Shrine, Mie


三重郡菰野町大字田口 / Taguchi, Komono, Mie District, Mie

The shrine is located up on a steep slope, the 天狗坂 Tengusaka. It was established more than 1200 years ago by 聖徳太子 Prince Shotoku Taishi to venerate Bishamonten.
The main days of rituals are on days with a 3, where many people come to venerate.
During the time of 敏達天皇 Emperor Bitatsu Tenno (538 - 585), a statue carver named 安阿弥 Annami came from 百済 Kudara, Korea, and carved the statue of Bishamonten. Shotoku Taishi later placed it here to pray for the safety of the country and to protect shrine 伊勢神宮 Ise Jingu.



There are many very old sugi 杉 cedar trees in the compound.
One of them, said to be more than 1000 years old, is the sacred 太子杉 Taishi Sugi.
The forest around the temple used to belong to the 桑名藩 Kuwana domain.
Nearby there was also the famous cedar tree Tengu sugi 天狗杉 Tengu cedar in the Kuwana forest, but this cedar does not exist any more.


- - - - - Deity in residence - - - - -
毘沙門天王 Bishamonten-O



. Bishamon-Ten . 毘沙門天 Vaishravana .


. 聖徳太子 Prince Shotoku Taishi .

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Mount 福王山 Fukuosan is famous for its Tengu legends and there are various Tengu statues on the access road.


猿田彦神 Sarutahiko

. Sarutahiko no Ookami 猿田彦大神 the Great Deity Sarutahiko .



The top of the mountain is rather flat and the local people called it
Tengu no Odori Koba 天狗の踊り小場 Small place for the Tengu to dance.



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Tengu Soba 天狗そば Tengu Soba Buckwheat noodles




Tengu Saka 天狗坂 Tengu Slope Bicycle Race

. Tengupedia - 天狗ペディア - Tengu ABC-List.

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shuin 朱印 stamp





omamori お守り amulets






- - - - - HP of the Shrine
Look at many photos, all the way up to the uppermost shrine.
- source : jummy1015.blog91.fc2.com -

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Yearly Festivals 年中行事



春の大祭 Great Spring Festival
秋の大祭 Great Autumn Festival

Tengu Oharai, O-harai 天狗おはらい Tengu Purification Ritual / 天狗のお払い at Setsubun



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- Reference : 三重県菰野町 / 福王神社


. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .

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28/01/2017

Kaitei Underwater Shrine and Susaki

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. Shinto Shrines (jinja 神社) - Introduction .
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Kaitei Jinja 海底神社 Underwater Shrine, Chiba
千葉県館山市「波左間海中公園」 / Tateyama town, Hasama Underwater Park



This shrine is located under water in Hasama Underwater Park, about 600 meters from the beach, at an underwater elevation called 高根 Takane.

The building is about 3.5 m high. The Torii gate is about 18 meters deep in the water.
The shrine building is 12 meters deep in the water.
To visit the shrine, people need diving equipment.

It is a sub-shrine of 洲崎神社 Susaki Jinja and was constructed with the wish and prayers to prevent water damage and accidents at sea by a local diving shop in July 1997.

The shimenawa しめ縄飾り sacred rope is made by the divers from plastic rope and renewed every year for the New Year rituals. The priest also has to use a diving suit to get there for the annual service.

It is said to be the only underwater shrine in Japan.
“日本で唯一の海底神社”


- - - - - HP of the underwater Shrine (水中神社)
- source : www5e.biglobe.ne.jp/~o_hasama/jinja -

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Susaki Jinja 洲崎神社 (Sunosaki Jinja)
千葉県館山市洲崎1697 / Chiba, Tateyama, Susaki (Suzaki)
洲宮神社 Sunomiya Jinja



It used to be the shrine 安房国一宮 Ichinomiya of Awa no Kuni.
It was built in 807.

- - - - - Deities in residence - - - - -
天比理乃咩命 Amenohirinome no Mikoto
formerly called 洲ノ神(すさきのかみ) Susaki no Kami (Sunosaki)
(天比理刀咩命 (あめのひりとめのみこと) Amenohiritome no Mikoto)


天太玉命(あめのふとだまのみこと)Amenofutodama no Mikoto
天富命(あめのとみのみこと)Amenotomi no Mikoto

- quote -
Taokihooi 手置帆負命 Taokihooi no kami
Ancestral kami (sojin) of the Inbe clan.
A kami related to the manufacture of shrine structures and implements. According to Kogo shūi, Taokihooi was ancestor of the Inbe of Sanuki (present-day Kagawa Prefecture). Together with Hikosashiri no mikoto, he was directed by Futodama (offspring of Takamimusuhi) to fabricate the "heavenly measures," "divine palace," and various military implements used to lure Amaterasu from the rock cave of heaven where she had hidden.

Under the leadership of Futodama's descendant Amenotomi no mikoto,
the descendants of Taokihooi and Hikosashiri no mikoto for the first time used sacred axes and adzes to cut mountain timber for the construction of Jinmu's main palace at Kashihara, and thereafter worked as fabricators of spear shafts. An "alternate writing" related by Nihongi states that in exchange for Ōmononushi's agreement to "transfer the land" (kuniyuzuri), Takamimusuhi vowed to provide Ōmononushi with eternal worship, and among the celebrants assigned to perform rites is listed one Taokihooi, ancestral kami of the Inbe of Kii (makers of sedge hats).
- source : Mori Mizue - kokugakuin -

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shuin 朱印 stamp





- - - - - HP of the Shrine
- source : sunosaki.info-

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Yearly Festivals 年中行事

The main Festival around August 20.
みのこ踊り奉納 Minoko Odori dance ritual


- CLICK for more photos !

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Cape Suno (洲崎 Suno-saki)
is a cape on the Pacific Ocean, in the city of Tateyama, Chiba Prefecture, Japan.
The cape is located at the southwestern point of Bōsō Peninsula on the island of Honshu, and marks the point between the inner and outer parts of the peninsula.
Cape Sunosaki is home to the Sunosaki Shrine, which was historically the supreme shrine (Ichinomiya) of Awa Province. By tradition it was built early in the Nara period.
The Sunosaki Shrine dance, the Sunosaki-odori, performed during religious observances at the shrine in June and August, is designated a national-level Intangible Cultural Property of Japan.
Yōrō-ji, a nearby Buddhist temple within the Sunosaki District of Tateyama, is historically closely linked with the Sunosaki Shrine.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .

The tidal current at Sunomisaki is very fast and called 潮の道 "road of the sea". The fishermen are very afraid of this place.
The ghosts of shipwrecked fishermen come home along this path and all are afraid of this
ayashi no 怪しの潮路 "the mysterious tideway".

- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -


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There are other places called Susaki (Suzaki) or Sunosaki in Japan.

. Susaki Jinja 洲崎神社 - Aichi .

. Suzaki 洲崎 in Edo / Tokyo .
Suzaki Shiohigari 潮干狩 Shellfish gathering at low tide

. Wakanoura matsuri 和歌浦祭 - Wakayama .
... after the festival, the mikoshi palanquin was carried to Suzaki beach 須崎.


. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .


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- - - - -  H A I K U  - - - - -

日の出見し洲崎の戻り初不動
hinode mishi Susaki no modori hatsu Fudo

back from the sunrise
at Sunomisaki -
first Fudo Ritual


中野三允 Nakano Sanin (1879 - 1955)
A disciple of Masaoka Shiki

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枯蘆を刈りて洲崎の廓哉
kareashi o karite susaki no kaku kana


正岡子規 Masaoka Shiki.



洲崎より柩出でゆく百日紅
鳥居美智子

ぎんなんの鈴生りの香を洲崎かな
いさ桜子

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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
- #suichu #kaitei #underwatershrine #susaki #suzaki #sunosaki #susakichiba -
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14/01/2017

Komainu Glossary

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Komainu - Introduction .
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komainu, koma-inu 狛犬 / 高麗犬 / 胡麻犬 "Korean Dog"
karajishi 唐獅子 "Chinese Lion" - shishi 獅子 Lion dog
fóshī 佛獅 Foshi, foo dog



Join the Komainu Gallery on facebook for regular updates !

There is a difference in the composure of a Komainu and a Shishi Lion dog.

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京都狛犬巡り Visiting the Komainu of Kyoto
京都の神社へ奉納する狛犬を刻むのに各地の石工が燃えないはずはないのだ。秀犬、猛犬、珍犬、駄犬、迷犬の揃い踏み。京都(府下も含む)の全狛犬徹底調 査! 狛犬はどこで作られ、どこから来たのか。調査結果から見えてきた狛犬の生態。狛犬と神社を楽しむためのガイドブック。京都狛犬巡りモデルコース付き。
- reference source : nakanishiya.co.jp/book -

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- reference source : Kyoto Komainu -


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- - - - - Glossary - 用語集 - - - - -

ball
玉乗り standing on a ball, 玉抑え holding a ball down / 玉くわえ having a ball in the mouth

beard 髭の形
- facebook -

. Bishamon-Ten . 毘沙門天 . - and tora 虎Tiger Koma animals


child (mother and child) 子持ち
組み伏せ holding down, 遊ばせ let it play, 授乳 nursing

Chinese Lion 中国獅子 - see Lion below


ears 耳の形
Standing up (立て耳)


eyes 目の形
釣り目空豆型 almond-shaped / 釣り目半月型 almond-shaped, half moon / 丸目 round eyes/ 垂れ目 drooping eyes / 小判目 like Koban / 光彩のある/なし shining or not


fur, coat of fur 毛並み / たてがみ 
straight 直毛 
The hair of a lion dog is often curled 巻毛.


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hairstyle 髪型 and form of head
角あり/なし with horn or not / hooju 宝珠(擬宝珠)like a Giboshi jewel / 兜型 like a helmet / 前分け hair parted in front / 尊結び bound together / たてがみ(ライオン型)mane, like a lion
越前禿 Echizen kamuro
- kamurogata 禿(かむろ)型 / 禿型 : photos -
- reference : facebook -


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Hakusan Komainu 白山狛犬 from Mount Hakusan
- photos -

. Hokusai Manga - Katsushika Hokusai 葛飾北斎 (1760-1849).

horn 角
The female often has one horn. The male has two horns.


Incence burner 香炉
- photos -


Izumo type 出雲狛犬
made from special stone of the region, 来待石 Kimachi Stone.


. koma...  狛 other Shrine guardian animals .


- Lantern with Komainu 灯籠狛犬 - photos -
- facebook -

Largest Komainu
in Gifu, 瑞浪市 Mizunami - made of Minoyaki pottery
高さ3.3m、幅1.56m、奥行き2.4m、総重量は15トン!
- Click here for photos ! -

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lion dog 獅子 shishi
Might have reached Japan directly via China and Taiwan. Has no horn.
His ears are hanging down (垂れ耳), fur is curled 巻毛, his mouth is closed.
Usually stands on the left side.

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mouth 口
A pair with open and closed mouth 阿吽 a-un / mouth open, agyoo 阿形 / mouth closed, ungyoo 吽形
the "alpha" and "omega", beginning and end of all things.
Open mouth on the right, closed mouth on the left side.
- reference photos -

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. Manekineko 招き猫狛犬 Beckoning Cat .

material 材料による分類
石 stone is relative new - different stones from local areas are used.
木 wood / ブロンズ bronze / 金 gold
焼き物(備前焼、美濃焼、瓦焼き pottery (Bizen, Mino, Kawarayaki . . .)
セメント・コンクリート cement, concrete


- Mother and Child Komainu - 狛犬 親子 - photos -


. nade komainu なでこまいぬ Komainu to rub for good luck .
..... o-negai Komainu お願い狛犬 to make a wish

- netsuke 根付 - photos -


Okazaki type 岡崎型 After WWII, the mass production started from here.


- Paintings of Komainu - photos -


- Rings, fingerring with Komainu - photos

. roof tiles - kawara, yanegawara 屋根瓦 .



Sendai-gata 仙台形 type from Sendai
source : facebook


setokoma せとこま from 瀬戸深川神社 Shrine Seto Fukagawa Jinja
11 Fukagawacho, Seto, Aichi
- reference photos -


. Shiisa シーサー Lion Dogs from Okinawa.

. Shooki Komainu 鍾馗 at 鍾馗神社 Shoki Shrine .

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- - - - - Shrines - - - - -
神殿狛犬型 Shrine-type
籠神社型 dragon deity shrine tpye  

大宝神社型 Daiho Jinja

厳島神社 Itsukushima Jinja (Hiroshima) : 14 painted and lacquered wooden figures (12-14c)

- photos -

籠(この)神社型 Kono Jinja
鷲神社(大分県)Ootori Jinja (Oita)
弥彦神社型(忠太狛犬) Yasuhiko Jinja (Chuta Komainu)
靖国神社型 Yasukuni shrine type


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Standing Komainu 立ち狛犬 / standing on front legs 逆立ち狛犬
- Click here for photos ! -

Stone lantern 四隅獅子頭型」灯籠 with Komainu at the corners
source : facebook



tail 尾の形
扇尾 like a handfan / 炎尾 like flames / 筒尾 like a pipe / 獅子尾 like a lion / 滝(流水)尾 like flowing water


- Tatoo with Komainu 刺青 irezumi - (fb)
..... tatoo - reference source : facebook -


. temizuya 手水舎 purification font, purification trough .

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- - - - - Temples - - - - -

. Toodaiji 東大寺型 Todai-Ji type - Nara .

薬師寺 Yakushi-Ji
a pair of painted wooden komainu (10-11c)

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. tomegoto 止め事成就の狛犬 make an end to something unpleasant .

tongue sticking out
- facebook -



- Toys with Komainu - photos -



. water basin 手水舎 at a shrine .

woodblock prints 狛犬の版画 hanga
- photos -

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狛犬覚醒


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source : facebook
Tokyo Asakusa Sanja Jinja 浅草『三社神社』 

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- - - - - Reference - - - - -


- reference : facebook - 狛犬さがし隊 -

- komainu.net/index - 狛犬の完全ガイド本
第1章● 狛犬入門
第2章● 狛犬は生きている
第3章● 熱血読み物
第4章● 館主の狛犬探訪記 - from North to South
第5章● 過去の狛犬臨時ニュース / 第6章● リンクなど

- 狛犬とは何か? 100万人の狛犬講座 -

- 分類 different typs of komainu -


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[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
- #komainuglossary #glossary -
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02/01/2017

komainu guardian dogs and lions

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Shinto Shrines (jinja 神社) - Introduction .
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komainu, koma-inu 狛犬 / 高麗犬 / 胡麻犬 "Korean Dog"
karajishi 唐獅子 "Chinese Lion"
foo dogs, fóshī 佛獅 Foshi




source : askideas.com/22-best-foo-dog-tattoo

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They come in a pair, one with its mouth open, agyoo 阿形;
and one with its mouth closed, ungyoo 吽形, thus representing the beginning (alpha) and end (omega) of all things.
Often a female one has one horn and the male one two.

. Komainu Daijin 狛犬大神 the Komainu Deity .
at 大和神社 Oyamato Shrine, Tenri, Nara

. koma...  狛 other Shrine guardian animals .

. Shiisa シーサー Lion Dogs from Okinawa.



source : facebook
Tokyo Asakusa Sanja Jinja 浅草『三社神社』 

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- quote -
komainu 狛犬 Lit. Korean dog.
A pair of lion-like guardian figures placed at each side of a shrine or temple entrance; believed to ward off evil spirits.
Thought to have been brought to Japan from China via Korea, their name is derived from Koma 高麗, the Japanese term for the Korean kingdom of Koguryo (Jp: Koukuri 高句麗). In the early Heian period, the two statues were clearly distinguished: the figure on the left, called shishi 獅子 (lion), resembled a lion with its mouth open agyou 阿形; the figure on the right, called komainu 狛犬 (Korean dog), resembled a dog with its mouth closed ungyou 吽形, and sometimes had a horn on its head.

- - - - - Ujigami Jinja Honden 宇治上神社本殿 (Kyoto)

Gradually
the term komainu came to be used for both statues, and their shapes became indistinguishable except for the open and closed mouths a-un 阿吽. In the Heian period komainu were used as weights or door-stops for curtains and screens in the Seiryoden 清涼殿, Kyoto Gosho 京都御所.
Other famous examples include a pair of painted wooden komainu (10-11c) at Yakushiji 薬師寺, Nara;
14 painted and lacquered wooden figures at Itsukushima Jinja 厳島神社 (12-14c) Hiroshima prefecture, and
the stone figures inside the south gate of Todaiji 東大寺, Nara, made by the 12c Chinese sculptor Chinnakei 陳和卿.
- source : JAANUS -

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- quote -
Literally, "Korean lions," paired figures of lion tutelaries found at the entryway to shrine buildings, or alongside their torii or approachways.
Also written 高麗犬 or 胡麻犬.

Most are made of stone,
although bronze, iron, wood, and ceramic examples can also be found. The paired figures are typically male and female, and in some cases one of the two has horns. In generally, the pairs include one with an open mouth and one with mouth closed, the so-called a-un posture symbolizing the "alpha" and "omega" of the Sanskrit alphabet. In some pairs, however, both are depicted with open mouths. The origin of such tutelary beasts is said to go back to Egypt or India, but the ones transmitted to Japan originated during China's Tang dynasty.

Another style was introduced to Japan from Song China during the Kamakura period, and this style is frequently referred to as kara jishi (Chinese lions). The word "Koma" is an ancient term for the Korean peninsula, but since the images were merely transmitted through the Korean peninsula, it may be that the term Koma inu was merely used to indicate their "foreign" nature.
As tutelaries, the animals are believed to symbolize the eradication of evil and the protection of the area around the kami.
- source : Nakayama Kaoru - Kokugakuin -

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Join the Komainu Gallery on facebook for regular updates !

- - - - - Information by Hayato Tokugawa

FOO DOGS Part I
In the West they are often called “Foo Dogs”;
however, they are not dogs, they’re lions! It’s a rather lazy Western contraction of the Chinese words
fóshī (佛獅, Buddha’s or Buddhist lion) or fúshī (福獅, fortuitous lion), although they have many other names in China such as “Auspicious lion” or “guardian lions,”
but most simply they are traditionally known in China as Shi (獅, shī) or “lion.”

Statues of these lions have stood guard over Chinese Imperial palaces, Imperial tombs, government offices, temples, as well as the homes of government officials and wealthy families, ever since the Han Dynasty (206 BC to 220 AD) and are honored as having powerful, mythic protective powers. It is not uncommon to see such lions used also as decorative or symbolic motifs in art, not to mention at the entrances to hotels, restaurants, supermarkets, and other buildings — even parks — one sitting at each side of an entrance. Ah, but they are not just common in China, but also in Japan, Okinawa and as far away as my other home of San Francisco. Indeed, wherever Chinese people have migrated, or Chinese culture has exerted its influence, one is likely to encounter fóshī.
- source : Hayato Tokugawa -

FOO DOGS Part II
Everything you wanted to know about Komainu, foshi, or "foo dogs".
Guardian lions in China are most often set in pairs, consisting of a male lion and a female lion, a representation of yin and yang (the male is yang, the female is yin.) The male rests his paw on an embroidered ball (绣球, xiù qiú), representing supremacy over the world; and the female often has her paw, the one closest to the male, resting (more than likely actually restraining) a cub: a representation of the cycle of life. Tradition says that the female protects those inside the building or place they guard while the male guards the structure or place itself. While the form of the lions was originally quite varied, it has over the centuries become formalized, particularly during the Ming and then the Qing dynasties, into the form we are most familiar with now.

Frequently one is likely to also see pairs of fóshī with the female’s mouth closed and the male’s open — said to be symbolic of the utterance of the sacred word “om.” Other styles of fóshī may have both male and female with opened mouths, each containing a single, large pearl. In the case of many such pairs, the pearl is frequently completely carved so that it is free to roll about in the lion’s mouth, but large enough that it cannot be removed.



Unlike the “guardian lions” one might see in front of a government or public building for example in the UK or in the United States, which are created to give a somewhat lifelike appearance of the animal, Chinese fóshī are carved with the intent of portraying the emotion of the lion as well as its symbolism. In the Chinese lions, the claws, teeth, and eyes represent power while it is rare that musculature is depicted at all; whereas in the English lion, it is its quite stylized with distinct musculature to portray its power.

Correct placement of the fóshī is essential as dictated by the principles of feng shui, ensuring that their beneficial effects are maximized. When, for example, standing in the doorway of a building looking out toward a street, or square, the same direction that the lions gaze at, the male is to be placed on the left and the female on the right; thus, when walking into a building or other place guarded by the lions, the male will be on the right and the female on the left.

One often hears, “But lions only exist in Africa!” Truth be told, Asiatic lions were once quite common in Southwest and Central Asia as well; and with the increase in trade, particularly during the Han dynasty, along the Silk Road, the depiction of lions, as well as their pelts, and even caged animals were introduced into China. Various ambassadors to China from the then “West” are known to have given gifts of live lions as tribute.
- source : Hayato Tokugawa -


FOO DOGS Part III - Japan
In Japan, one is likely to find a myriad of fóshī, only there they are commonly referred to as komainu (狛犬・胡麻犬) and are likely to be found at Shintō shrines, either guarding the entrance or even inside the shrine itself.


(Photographs by Tajimi Jones, also known as Aoi Tokugawa.)

In Japan, one is likely to find a myriad of fóshī, only there they are commonly referred to as komainu (狛犬・胡麻犬) and are likely to be found at Shintō shrines, either guarding the entrance or even inside the shrine itself. And despite the forced attempt to separate Buddhism from Shintō during Meiji, even the denigration of Buddhism at the time, komainu can also be found at Buddhist temples. Try as it might, the government just never quite managed to separate the two. There are two common forms, the jinnai komainu (陣内狛犬) or shrine inside komainu, which is the older of the two forms, and the sandō komainu (参道狛犬) or the “visiting road komainu) which took shape during the Edo period.

The pair of lions are typically identical to each other except that one has an open mouth while the other’s is closed. Tradition holds that the open mouth is pronouncing the first letter of the Sanskrit alphabet, “a,” while the closed mouth is speaking the last letter, “um,” — a representation of the beginning and end of all things. Combined, they form the sound “Aum,” sacred in both Hinduism and Buddhism. That’s not to say that there are not exceptions to this “rule.”
Komainu were “exported” from China to Korea, Japan, and Okinawa; and in Japan proper, they seem to have made their first appearance during the Nara period (710 – 794). They were used exclusively indoors until the 14th century and were then generally made of wood. During the following Heian period (794 – 1185), Komainu were frequently made of metal or stone in addition to wood, and were used as paper weights and doorstops among other things. In the Imperial Palace komainu were frequently used to support fusuma (襖).

It was also during the Heian (the 9th century) that the statues took on their “mouth open - mouth shut” forms we are most familiar with. The lion with the open mouth was called shishi (獅子, lion), while the other, with its mouth closed was called komainu or “koguryo dog” because it looked like…a dog — a chow chow, or a Japanese chin, or a Pekinese! Eventually they were both simply referred to as komainu.

The 14th century saw stone or metal “lion-dogs” moved outdoors in order to utilize its power to ward off evil as the guardians of gates and doors. This applied not just to public or private buildings, but to shrines and temples as well. During the Edo period, komainu were replaced or “assisted” by other creatures such as tigers, dragons and even foxes (Inari shrines) but I have yet to encounter a tanuki as a komainu.

Shinto is very important in the Tajimi area (the regions of Gifu-ken and Aichi-ken) like most of rural Japan. You will find more shrines than you could possibly imagine and just as many (times 2) komainu. These are all made by local craftsmen (first stone cutters, the rest by sculptors and ceramic artists). It could easily take years to visit all the shrines - a pilgrimage in itself.
- source : Hayato Tokugawa -

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A Korean komainu or haechi (age unknown).


We know that lions appeared in Indian temple art and, as early as the third century, showed up in the art of Chinese Buddhism; a symbol of protection of the dharma (the teachings of Buddha). Apparently as time progressed, it was determined that what was good for the Buddha must then also be good for the Emperor; thus, the lions became protectors of the gates and doors of imperial buildings and compounds. Now, the Chinese word for lion is shi 獅 or shishi 獅子; however, another creature that appeared in China at about the same time called the xiezhi, and at some point in time, between the third and seventh centuries, pairs of stone xiezhi made their way to Korea, where the name was pronounced haetae or haechi. The haechi appears very lion-like, but often has a scaly body, a small horn on its head, and sometimes small wings.

By the Nara period (710-794), lion guardians had journeyed to Japan, typically made of wood and intended for indoor use. By the ninth century, the pair came to consist of an open-mouthed lion (shishi 獅子) and one close-mouthed, horn-bearing, dog-like komainu (Korean dog. By the fourteenth century the horn disappeared, (although it does show up from time to time) and both animals of the pair came to be known as komainu, largely carved from stone and used out of doors.
- source : Hayato Tokugawa -


- quote -
Pìxiū 貔貅, which is pronounced Hikyū in Japan.
Also known in Chinese as Bìxié 避邪 or Tiān Lù 天禄. Also known in Japanese as Hekija 辟邪 or Tenroku 天禄.
A composite beast of ancient origin, mostly forgotten in Japan, but still popular today in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore. The mythological dragon-headed, lion-bodied Pìxiū 貔貅 (also spelled 豼貅) were traditionally depicted in China as a male-female pair, one with a single horn (male, Pì 貔) and the other with two horns (female, Xiū 貅), but in modern times they each commonly appear with only one horn. In ancient China, statues of the two guarded the entrance to the tomb, as they are thought to ward off evil and protect wealth.
In old China, the beasts were also commonly portrayed with hoofs, wings, and tails, and supposedly appeared on the banners of the emperor’s chariots (兵車に立てた旗). In Japan, the Hikyū are largely ignored, having been supplanted by the Koma-inu (magical lion dogs) and Shishi (magical lions), who traditionally stand guard outside the gates of Japanese Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples. In Japan, effigies of Shishi lions are also commonly used as architectural elements, placed under the eaves of both Shintō shrines and Buddhist temples to ward off evil spirits.
Let us recall that, in China, the Pìxiū also serve this role, and in olden times were commonly displayed on the roof corners of the homes of the emperor and gentry.
- continue reading
- source : Mark Schumacher -


And please check the main page of Mark Schumacher about Komainu


CLICK for more photos !

SHISHI LIONS - SHRINE & TEMPLE GUARDIANS
WITH MAGICAL POWERS TO REPEL EVIL
Jp. = Shishi 獅子 or Kara Shishi 唐獅子, Chn. = Shíshī
Also known as Koma-inu 狛犬 (lion dog) in Japan
- source : Mark Schumacher -

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. - - - - - Komainu Glossary - 用語集 - - - - - .

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- reference : facebook - 狛犬さがし隊 -

- 狛犬とは何か? 100万人の狛犬講座 -

- 分類 different typs of komainu -

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狛犬覚醒
- - reference source : 平井靖久 facebook -


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Two statues by master sculptor 運慶 Unkei (? - 1223)






- look at more Komainu photos at the shrine 地主神社 Jinushi Jinja :
- reference source : jishujinja.or.jp/kigan -

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- Reference : 狛犬
- Reference : komainu



狛犬切手 Komainu Stamp - from 香取神宮 Katori Jingu
編集長の狛犬日記 - very informative !
- reference source : www15.plala.or.jp/timebox/top/08nikki -


. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .

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- - - - -  H A I K U  - - - - -



in the limelight
for two seconds -
photographer's luck!


. Shrine Ichi no Miya, Wadakita, Ohaga .
Gabi Greve at 和田北 一宮神社, my local shrine

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狛犬の片足折れぬ神の留守
komainu no ashi orenu kami no rusu

正岡子規 Masaoka Shiki

山法師狛犬古りし結願寺 我部敬子
市神の狛犬に角木下闇 田中英子
春の狛犬にさはりたがりしかな 夏井いつき
柿の浮力狛犬いちにち足そろふ 磯貝碧蹄館

狛犬にそびらの虚空のぞかるる 林田紀音夫
狛犬にテント結はへしラムネ売り 森重夫(万象)
狛犬に乳房が六つ山眠る 仙 とよえ
狛犬に木三本づつの雪囲ひ 川崎展宏
狛犬に犬を預けて盆踊 平上昌子

狛犬の仔は石気取り松の花 加藤あきと
狛犬の光る眼と合ひ初不動 室田東洋女
狛犬の口に溜まりし寒の雨 岡田久慧
狛犬の口の中なる蝉の殻 國守セツ
狛犬の口の奥まで残暑かな 渡辺初雄
狛犬の口より出でし石竜かな 巌谷小波
狛犬の台座もろとも苔の花 小野寺順子
狛犬の吽の口あく木下闇 友塚紀美恵
狛犬の渦のたてがみ青あらし 清水 白郎
狛犬の爪に立てかけ青写真 武田無涯子
狛犬の玉を踏みたる薄暑光 長谷川久々子
狛犬の相寄らぬまゝ冬の暮 川崎展宏
狛犬の走つてゆけり青嵐 小島健 木の実
狛犬の金歯赫々木下闇 河野静雲 閻魔
狛犬の金目うつろや神無月 仲澤輝子
狛犬の阿の口子蜘蛛出るわ出るわ 松山足羽
狛犬の阿吽を抜ける西東忌 森田智子
狛犬の頭に苔知恵の文殊堂 八木三日女
狛犬の首に真青な注連飾 藤本安騎生

狛犬は網かぶせられゐて灼くる 頼経嘉子
狛犬もよそよそしかりみな猛暑 丸山佳子
狛犬も邪鬼と睦むや雪囲して 文挟夫佐恵
狛犬や碓氷の神のしぐれける 川崎展宏
狛犬を葭簀の中に年の市 青邨

狼の眼の狛犬や山始 鳥居雨路子
秋風や狛犬白き美保神社 板谷芳浄
金襴を纒ふ狛犬初戎 野村浩之

- reference source : cgi-bin/HAIKUreikuDB -

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

In 1854, during a fire at the palace, the 獅子狛犬 Lions Dogs from the 清涼殿 Seiryoden Palace were brought to the home of the honorable 一条家 Ichijo Family for safekeeping by a high-ranking official working at the Seiryoden. Later they tried to find this man, but were told such an official does not exist. They said it must have been the spirit of the Komainu.


source : 15.plala.or.jp/timebox/top/05komamori/75/seiryoden

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. Gifu 岐阜県

At 白川村 Shirakawa village there was a wolf who had eaten the bones of a human and they gut stuck in his throat. The villagers helped him when they found him sitting and suffering in the compound of 八幡様 Hachiman Shrine. And the Deity promised to help the villagers from now on. So they changed the Komainu at the shrine and installed statues of wolves.


- and found by chance, two Komainu from Gifu, Hida


和良村の歴史資料官に
source : hidasaihakken.hida-ch.com

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. Iwate 岩手県

The authorities of 胆沢 Isawa ordered the Komainu in the park to be burried in the ground.
But after that, a lot of strange bad things happened in the village, as a curse of the Komainu.

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. Okayama 岡山県

. Kibitsu Komainu 吉備津狛犬 from the shrine Kibitsu Hiko Jinja 吉備津彦神社 .

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. Yamanashi 山梨県

Once the八幡さんの獅子 Lion Dogs from Hachiman Shrine were stolen.
But the home of the thief was soon befallen with diseases, fire and other disasters. So they all pledged to bring the Komainu back to the shrine and tried to pull them along with a horse. But the horse could not move, they were too heavy.
Then a man took one on his back - and what do you say - it was so light, he could carry it with no problem.

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- reference : nichibun yokai database -

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