yamamiya and satomiya


Yamamiya 山宮 Mountain Shrine - Satomiya 里宮 Village Shrine

yama no miya 山の宮
sato no miya 里の宮

source : oobuchi2012
Yamamiya Sengen Jinja 山宮浅間神社 - for Mount Fuji

"Mountain shrine" and "village shrine."
In cases where a shrine complex is composed of multiple sanctuaries, the one located at the top or midway up the side of a mountain is called the yamamiya (mountain shrine), while the one located near human habitation at the foot of the mountain is called the satomiya (village shrine).
The yamamiya may also be called the okumiya or okusha (remote shrine), while the satomiya found low on the mountain is sometimes called the shimosha (lower shrine 下社).

According to generally accepted views, satomiya were first established as expedients to allow more convenient worship of kami originally enshrined in remote yamamiya located higher on the mountain. In some cases, a single yamamiya may be associated with multiple satomiya.

Also, while the satomiya normally functions as a shrine continuously throughout the year, the yamamiya is accessible only during festivals, and during the period from spring until early fall, when the mountain is considered "open" to visitors. Representative examples of yamamiya-satomiya pairs include the shrines
Mitake Jinja 御嶽神社, Sengen Jinja 浅間神社, and Kanasana Jinja 金鑚神社.
source : Nakayama Kaoru, Kokugakuin 2005

. okumiya 奥宮 "innermost shrine" Okumiya shrine .

. Yama no Kami 山の神 God of the Mountains, Ta no Kami 田の神 God of the Fields.

. Yama no Sachi 山の幸 Food from the Mountains,
. Umi no Sachi 海の幸 Food from the Sea.

and related deities

. Sengen Jinja 浅間神社 . for Mount Fuji 富士山
and the Yoshida no Himatsuri 吉田の火祭り Yoshida Fire Festival

. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

under construction

yamamiya no fue kikoekuru shiohi kana

I hear the flute
from the mountain shrine -
ebb tide

Sasaki Yuufuu 佐々木有風 Sasaki Yufu (1891 - 1959)

. WKD : shiohi 汐干 潮汐(しおひ) ebb tide .


source : 丹後國加佐郡住人
Prince Shotoku Taishi on his Black Horse, in Kaii 甲斐の黒駒

satomiya ni Kurokoma Taishi kibi no aki

at the village shrine
resides Taishi on his Black Horse -
millet in autumn

Tachibanadera 橘寺 in Asuka, Nara, birthplace of Prince Shotoku

In front of the temple is a bronze statue of a horse named Kurokoma [Black Pegasus] who was the beloved horse that Shōtōku Taishi used to ride to various localities to spread the word of Buddhism. It was also said the Prince often rode this horse to Ikaruga (Hōryū-ji Temple) and that the horse had miraculous powers, including the ability to fly.

With Shōtoku Taishi on his back, Kurokoma flew for three days and around the country, never tiring. Shōtoku Taishi left a stone memorial to the horse, which the great Buddhist monk Kōbō Daishi [774-835] later commented on during his trip to Tachibana Temple.
source : japantourist.jp/view

In Tohoku there are many temples with statues of Taishi on his Black Horse,
as part of the Mountain Religion 山岳宗教 of this region.

. Tachibanadera 橘寺 .

. Shotoku Taishi 聖徳太子 Shotoku Taishi .


satomiya mo Togakushi michi mo kuzu no aki

at the village shrine
and at the road to Mount Togakushi -
arrowroot in autumn

. Togakushi Jinja 戸隠神社 Togakushi Shrine, Nagano .

. WKD : kuzu 葛 arrowroot, Pueraria lobata .

Nishimoto Itto
西本一都 (1907 - 1991)

The World: Japan's Nature; A People Tremble in Harmony With the Land

Earth shakes, ground trembles.
With great weight of snow,
The tight rope snaps back.

Itto Nishimoto
source : www.nytimes.com/1995 - NICHOLAS D. KRISTOF


Hotaka Jinja, Hodaka Jinja - Satomiya 穂高神社(里宮)

soma mo kitsu Hotaka Satomiya haru matsuri

the woodcutters have also come -
shrine Satomiya at Mount Hotaka
at the spring festival

Watanabe Tatsuo 渡辺立男

The deity is Hodakami no Mikoto 穂高見命(ほだかみのみこと)
Hotakami no Mikoto.

- Reference - Hodaka Shrine -


sonsha 村社 "villge shrine"

Village shrines, a category of shrine stipulated under the shrine system established in the Meiji era. The broad categorization was between official shrines (kansha) and other shrines (shosha), and village shrines fell into the latter category, under gōsha. (goosha 郷社).

In the gōsha teisoku (Regulations for Rural District Shrines) of 1871, village shrines were defined as subordinate to gō shrines, but gradually thereafter they came to be recognized as an independent shrine rank. Generally, shrines dedicated to the village ujigami (tutelary deity) were those stipulated as sonsha.

At the end of the Pacific War, there were forty-four thousand nine hundred thirty-four sonsha; there were more of these than any other category bar those shrines of no rank (mukakusha). About one third of these sonsha were in receipt of public funds for offerings on the occasion of kinensai, the niinamesai and the shrine's own annual rites (reisai). After the war, in 1946, the shrine system was abolished, and the label of village shrine ceased to have official value.
source : Inoue Nobutaka, Kokugakuin, 2007

gōsha, goosha 郷社 "villge shrine"

Rural District Shrines.
A shrine rank instituted in the Modern shrine ranking system. The modern shrine ranking system was divided into the two general categories of kansha (state shrines) and shosha (assorted shrines).

Gōsha were included in the latter category below the municipal and prefectural shrines and above village shrines (sonsha). Shrines dedicated to local protector deities (ubusunasha) in a given locality were nominated as gōsha. Under the 1871 gōsha regulations (gōsha teisoku), each district was allocated its own gōsha. In a district with multiple shrines venerating different protector deities, the most popular of them was designated gōsha.
From 1922, municipal districts and prefectures funded offerings to gōsha on the occasions of the Kinensai and Niinamesai rites, and also for the shrine's own annual festival (reisai). At the end of the war, the rank of gōsha disappeared with the abolition of the shrine ranking system.
source : Inoue Nobutaka, Kokugakuin 2007

. ujigami 氏神 tutelary deity, guardian/patron deity, clan deity .
and ubusunagami 産土神 God of one's birthplace
- - - - - ubusuna mairi 産土神参 etc.




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