07/11/2013

taisai - major festival

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taisai 大祭  major festival, major rites, Grand Festival



- quote
Taisai
One division of shrine rites, conducted in the form of major festivals. After the Meiji Restoration, these observances became regulated under government ordinance, and since 1945 they have been specified in the Regulations of Shrine Observances (Jinja saishi kitei) of the Association of Shinto Shrines (jinja honchō). The Regulations divide taisai into
reisai 例祭, kinensai 記念祭, niinamesai 新嘗祭, shikinensai, chinzasai, senzasai, gōshisai, bunshisai, and rites based on special shrine traditions.

The standard for taisai is set by rites with a public character and a long history, such as those involving the transfer of a deity, festivals closely connected to the enshrined deity or the origin of a shrine. The instructions for such rites are set out in the Jinja saishiki, which specifies in detail how the rites are to be conducted.

The system of categorizing rites by their content and size goes back to the Ritsuryō period. According to the Jingiryō code for shrine rites,
"taishi are rites celebrated during an entire month, while chūshi last three days and shōshi only one day."

The rites are differentiated by the length of the period of abstinence that must be observed before it. The only large-scale rite mentioned for its especially important significance is the daijōsai (sokui), which is conducted as part of the ceremonies for imperial accession and is codified in the Engishiki. In the Ordinance of Imperial Household Rites (Kōshitsu saishi rei) of 1908, rites are divided into major (taisai) and minor (shōsai).

Taisai are the rites in which "the emperor leads the imperial family and government officials" and include genshisai, kigensetsu, spring and autumn kōreisai, spring and autumn shindensai, Jinmu tennōsai, kannamesai, niinamesai, senteisai (rites for the previous emperor), rites for the previous three generations of emperors, rites for the previous empress and rites for the previous empress dowager.

The daijōsai is not prescribed in the Kōshitsu saishirei, but instead in the Ordinance on Ascension to the Throne (tōkyokurei). As a very important rite celebrated only once per imperial reign, the daijōsai is treated in the Ordinance as representing a special category by itself.
- source : Mogi Sadasumi , Kokugakuin


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. Hachinohe Sansha Taisai 八戸三社大祭 Hachinohe Sansha Grand Festival . Aomori

. hatsu tatsu taisai 初辰大祭 Grand Festival on the first day of the dragon in January .
at Kifune Shrine 貴船神社 Kurama

. Izumo taisha 出雲大社 Izumo Grand Shrine - tai sai .

. Korei taisai 古例大祭 at Taga Taisha 多賀大社 Great Taga Shrine .

. Osorezan Taisai 恐山大祭 Great Festival at Mount Osorezan .

. Shinkoshiki Taisai 神幸式大祭 Procession of Gods Festival .
at Dazaifu matsuri 大宰府祭 Dazaifu festival - for Sugawara Michizane

. Shuki Taisai - Autumn Festival 秋季大祭 at Tamaki Jinja 玉置神社, Nara .

. Warei taisai 和霊大祭 Great Festival at Warei Shrine . Ehime


- Reference : 日本語

- Reference : English


. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .


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- - - - -  H A I K U  - - - - -

港に鱶は老い遠き海の大祭
hama ni fuka wa oi tooki umi no taisai

at the port
an old big shark far away
at the Great Sea Festival


Takayanagi Juushin 高柳重信 Takayanagi Jushin

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. . daijoosai, daijōsai 大嘗祭 Shinto Harvest Thanksgiving Ritual . .
- - - - - niiname no matsuri 新嘗祭 Niiname-Sai
- - - - - niinamesai 新嘗祭 harvest thanksgiving festival


奉納の繭も慈姑も新嘗祭
三谷いちろ


灯れる新嘗祭の二重橋
京極杞陽


医王晴れ新嘗祭の太鼓鳴る
前田時余


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reisai 例祭 annual festival



- quote
Reisai
The annual ‘major festival' (taisai) of a shrine, held on a day related either to the enshrined deity or the origin of the shrine. The term reisai is relatively recent.

In ancient times this festival was distinguished from other rites held throughout the year by using the honorific terms ōmatsuri ('great festival') or onmatsuri, or by associating it directly with the name of the shrine, as in Kasuga-sai, Kamo-sa and Iwashimizu-sai. Occurrences of the term reisai in illustrated guidebooks of the Edo period indicate that use of the word was widespread by this time, such festivals being perceived as differing from others.

Under the shrine system of the Meiji period, the kinensai, niinamesai and other rites were classified as taisai, and ceremonies in which emissaries (chokushi or heihaku kyōshinshi) made offerings were held at various shrines ranking from ‘government shrines' (kanpeisha) down to village shrines.

Given that reisai are held on days that have a special connection to the enshrined deity or the origins of the shrine, the dates of their celebration cannot be changed without special reasons. The reisai of some of the most prominent shrines are:

Kashihara Jingū (February 11), Kasuga Taisha (March 13), Katori Jingū (April 14), Heian Jingū (April 15), Ōmi Jingū (April 20), Izumo Taisha (May 14), Kamowake Ikazuchi Jinja and Kamo no Mioya Jinja (May 15), Atsuta Jingū (June 5), Hikawa Jinja (August 1), Kashima Jingū (September 1), Iwashimizu Hachimangū (September 15), and Meiji Jingū (November 3).

The Grand Shrines of Ise do not have a designated reisai, but the kannamesai of October 17, with its close association with the enshrined deity, is probably its closest equivalent. Although the system of making offerings from public funds was abolished after the war, imperial emissaries still visit shrines on the occasion of the hōbeisai.

Furthermore, the tradition is being continued by the Association of Shinto Shrines, which sends its own emissaries with offerings (honchōhei). The Association also attaches special importance to the dates designated for reisai, which cannot be changed without its approval.
- source : Motegi Sadasumi, Kokugakuin


. hōbei, hoobei 奉幣 offerings from Grand Ise Shrine 伊勢神宮.
kannamesai 神嘗祭, kanname no matsuri kannie no matsuri. shinjoosai しんじょうさい
kanname 神嘗 - kamunie, kamuname

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. shooreisai 松例祭 Shōreisai, pine torch festival .
at Mount Haguro




松例祭火の粉が落す杉の雪
升本行洋

松例祭火事装束の大目付
三原清暁

松例祭闇に羽黒の天狗翔ぶ
高木金男

桟俵被る阿呆や松例祭
棚山波朗

満願の髭がほころぶ松例祭
神林久子

身の丈を舞ひ飛ぶ修験松例祭
阿部月山子

とんぶりの握飯賜はる松例祭
高木良多

大梵天立ちて始まる松例祭
粕谷容子

天焦がす対の火柱松例祭
阿部月山子


. WKD : reisai 例祭 annual festivals .


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